Pluripotency is the ability of a cell to differentiate into any cell type. The ability to induce pluripotency in cells from an individual provides a valuable tool for developmental biology studies and disease research studies, and could ultimately be applied to personalized stem cell therapy. Cell Signaling Technology (CST) offers a comprehensive line of stem cell and lineage markers. CST™ antibodies are extensively validated in relevant research applications by our team of in-house experts and validation data is presented online for each product. And our technical support scientists are available for consultation, just in case you need a partner at the bench.

Reprogramming Factors Key: OOct4, K—Klf4, SSox2, Mc-Myc, E—Esrrb, Nr—Nr5a2, CC/EBPα, LLin28, NNanog

Species Cell Type Reprogramming Factors Reference
Mouse Fibroblasts OKSM, OKS, OSE, KSNr Takahashi & Yamanaka 2006
Mature B & T cells OKSMC, OKSM Hanna et al. 2008; Eminli et al. 2009
Myeloid progenitors OKSM Eminli et al. 2009
Hematopoietic stem cells OKSM Eminli et al. 2009
Adipose-derived stem cells OKSM Sugii et al. 2010
Dermal Papilla OKM, OK Tsai et al. 2010
Satellite cells OKSM Tan et al. 2011
Pancreatic β-cells OKSM Stadtfeld et al. 2008
Hepatic endoderm OKS Aoi et al. 2008
Neural stem cells OK Kim et al. 2008; Kim et al. 2009
Melanocytes OKM Utikal et al. 2009
Human Fibroblasts OKSM, OSLN, OKS Takahashi et al. 2007; Yu et al. 2007; Nakagawa et al. 2008
Mobilized peripheral blood OKSM Loh et al. 2009
Cord blood endothelia OSLN Haase et al. 2009
Cord blood stem cells OKSM, OS Eminli et al. 2009; Giorgetti et al. 2009
Adipose-derived stem cells OKSM, OKS Sugii et al. 2010; Aoki et al. 2010
Hepatocytes OKSM Liu et al. 2010
Keratinocytes OKSM, OKS Aasen et al. 2008
Neural stem cells O Kim et al. 2009
Pancreatic β-cells OKSM Bar-Nur et al. 2011
Amniotic cells OKSM, OSN Li et al. 2009; Zhao et al. 2010

Table adapted from Stadtfeld and Hochedlinger 2011.

Immunofluorescent analysis of mouse iPS Cells

Common Pluripotency Markers Adapted from Walsh, Becker and Hochedlinger 2011.
Oct-4
Transcription factor expressed in undifferentiated pluripotent embryonic stem cells and germ cells during normal development. Together with Sox2 and Nanog, is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential.
Sox2
Transcription factor expressed in undifferentiated pluripotent embryonic stem cells and germ cells during development. Together with Oct-4 and Nanog, is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential.
Nanog
Homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for maintenance of pluripotency and self renewal in embryonic stem cells. Expression is controlled by a network of factors including Sox2 and the key pluripotency regulator Oct-4.
KLF4
Zinc-finger-containing transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4); used for generation of human and mouse ES cells.
TRA-1-60/TRA-1-81/TRA-2-54
Present on the surface of human stem, teratocarcinoma, and embryonic germ cells.
SSEA1
Lactoseries oligosaccharide expressed on the surface of mouse embryonic carcinoma, embryonic stem, and germ cells, but only expressed on human germ cells. Expression of SSEA1 on human cells increases upon differentiation, while differentiation of mouse cells leads to decreased expression.
SSEA4
Glycolipid carbohydrate expressed on the surface of human teratocarcinoma stem, embryonic germ, and embryonic stem cells. Expression of human SSEA4 decreases following differentiation of human embryonic carcinoma cells, but increases following differentiation in mouse cells.