The PI3K / Akt Substrates Table provides a comprehensive list of demonstrated downstream targets of Akt phosphorylation, along with the relevant phosphorylation site, publication reference and effect of phosphorylation. This information was generated using PhosphoSitePlus®, CST’s open scientific resource of protein modification information, available on the web at

Substrate Isoform Organism Site Human Site Sequence (+/-) PMID Substrate Function & Effect of Phosphorylation
14-3-3 ζ Akt1 human S58 S58 VVGARRSsWRVVssI 11956222 a key regulatory protein in signal transduction, checkpoint control, apoptotic, and nutrient-sensing pathways; effect of phosphorylation is unknown
acinus Akt1 human S1180 S1180 GPRsRsRsRDRRRKE 18559500, 16177823 induces chromatin condensation during apoptosis; phosphorylation inhibits this process
  Akt1 rat S1329 S1331 HSRSRSRsTPVRDRG 16177823 induces chromatin condensation during apoptosis; phosphorylation inhibits this process
ACLY Akt1 mouse S455 S455 PAPSRtAsFsESRAD 16007201 catalyzes the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate (OAA) in the cytosol; phosphorylation enhances the catalytic activity of the enzyme
ADRB2 Akt1 human S346 S346 LLCLRRssLKAyGNG 11809767 a receptor that binds epinephrine and norepinephrine, acting as a neuromodulator in the central nervous system and as a hormone in the vascular system; phosphorylation in response to insulin stimulation leads to sequestration of ADBR2
Akt1 Akt1 human S246, T72 S246, T72 LSRERVFsEDRARFY, TERPRPNtFIIRCLQ 16549426 activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive PI3 kinase-involved pathway controlling survival and apoptosis; autophosphorylation activates the kinase
  Akt1 mouse S473 S473 RPHFPQFsYsAsGtA 11570877, 10722653 activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive PI3 kinase-involved pathway controlling survival and apoptosis; autophosphorylation activates the kinase
AMPKA1 Akt1 rat S485 S485 ATPQRSGsISNYRSC 16340011 heterotrimeric complex that plays a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis; phosphorylation regulates AMPK activity
AMPKA2 Akt1 rat S491 S491 STPQRSCsAAGLHRP 16340011 heterotrimeric complex that plays a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis; phosphorylation regulates AMPK activity
APS Akt1 rat S588 S598 SARSRSNsTEHLLEA 16141217 an adaptor protein recruited to the insulin receptor to signal insulin-stimulated glucose transport; phosphorylation promotes membrane localization
AR Akt1 human S213, S791 S213, S791 SGRAREAsGAPTsSK, CVRMRHLsQEFGWLQ 11404460, 14555644, 17470458, 11156376 nuclear receptor; phosphorylation suppresses AR activation, expression of AR target genes, and AR-mediated apoptosis
arfaptin 2 Akt1 human S260 S260 GTRGRLEsAQATFQA 15809304 ADP ribosylation factor-interacting protein, implicated as a factor in Huntington's disease; phosphorylation promotes neuronal cell survival and neuroprotection
ARHGAP22 Akt1 human S16 S16 ARRARSKsLVMGEQS 21969604 a Rho GTPase activator that inhibits Rac1; phosphorylation allows 14-3-3 binding and regulation of cell motility
AS160 Akt1 human T642 T642 QFRRRAHtFsHPPss 16880201, 11994271, 16935857 insulin stimulated Rab GTPase-activating protein, structurally and functionally similar to TBC1D1; phosphorylation results in increased Glut4 translocation
ASK1 Akt1, Akt2 human S83 S83 ATRGRGssVGGGSRR 11154276, 15782121, 15911620, 14500571, 12697749 MAPKKK, induces apoptosis via JNK pathway; phosphorylation inhibits activity and promotes survival
ataxin-1 Akt1 human S775 S775 ATRKRRWsAPESRKL 17540008, 12757707 14-3-3 binds to and stabilizes ataxin-1, which forms polyglutamine aggregates and neurodegeneration; phosphorylation promotes 14-3-3 binding
B-Raf Akt1, Akt3 human S365, S429 S365, S429 GQRDRsssAPNVHIN, PQRERKsssSsEDRN 10869359, 18451171 signaling intermediate in Erk1/2 pathway; phosphorylation causes inhibition
BAD Akt1 human S99 S99 PFRGRsRsAPPNLWA 11020382, 10558990, 19667065 pro-apoptotic protein; phosphorylation inhibits function and promotes survival
  Akt1 mouse S112, S155 S75, S118 ETRsRHssyPAGtEE, GRELRRMsDEFEGSF 9381178, 11723239, 10983986, 15123689, 10949026 pro-apoptotic protein; phosphorylation inhibits function and promotes survival
Bcl-10 Akt1 human S218, S231 S218, S231 EEGTCANsSEMFLPL, PLRSRtVsRQ_____ 16280327 a CARD (caspase recruitment domain) containing protein shown to induce apoptosis and activate NF-κB; phosphorylation induces nuclear translocation
Bcl-xL Akt1 rat S106 S106 LRYRRAFsDLTSQLH 18951975 prevents apoptosis through binding to apoptotic proteins; phosphorylation promotes VDAC binding
Bex1 Akt1 rat S105 S102 KLRERQLsHSLRAVS 16498402 a neurotrophin and nerve growth factor signaling adaptor molecule involved in promoting cell cycle progression; phosphorylation prevents degradation by the proteasome
Bim Akt1 human S87 S87 FIFMRRssLLSRSss 16282323 pro-apoptotic protein; phosphorylation promotes 14-3-3 binding/inactivation and cell survival
BRCA1 Akt1 human S694, T509 S694, T509 QTSKRHDsDTFPELK, LKRKRRPtsGLHPED 20085797, 10542266 breast cancer susceptibility gene product, tumor suppressor; phosphorylation alters function, perhaps by preventing nuclear localization
BRF1 Akt1 human S92, S203 S92, S203 RFRDRsFsEGGERLL, PRLQHsFsFAGFPSA 17030608, 15538381 a CCCH zinc-finger protein that binds to AU-rich elements (ARE) found in the 3'-untranslated regions of mRNAs and promotes de-adenylation and rapid degradation by the exosome; phosphorylation results in binding by 14-3-3 protein and inactivation of BRF1
CACNB2 Akt1 rat S625 S630 KQRSRHKsKDRYCDK 15311280 voltage-dependent calcium channel; phosphorylation regulates channel trafficking to plasma membrane
CaRHSP1 Akt1 human S52 S52 tRRtRtFsAtVRASQ 15910284 RNA binding protein; phosphorylation effect currently unknown
Casp9 Akt1 human S196 S196 KLRRRFssLHFMVEV 9812896 protease, initiates apoptosis; phosphorylation inhibits protease activity
CBP Akt1 mouse T1872 T1871 LMRRRMAtMNTRNVP 17166829 acetylates histone and non-histone proteins; phosphorylation increases activity
CBY1 Akt1, Akt2 human S20 S20 TPPRKSAsLSNLHsL 18573912 an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway; phosphorylation allows 14-3-3 binding and b-catenin sequestration in the cytoplasm
CCT2 Akt1 human S260 S260 GsRVRVDstAkVAEI 19332537 member of the protein chaperone complex; effect of phosphorylation currently unknown
CD34 Akt2 mouse S343 S346 yssGPGAsPETQGKA 21499536 a type I transmembrane glycophosphoprotein expressed by hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, vascular endothelium and some fibroblasts as a negative regulator of cell adhesion; effect of phosphorylation currently unknown
Cdc25B Akt1 mouse S351 S353 VQSKRRKsVtPLEEQ 17554083 protein phosphatase responsible for cdc2 activation; phosphorylation promotes activation of M-phase promoting factor
CDK2 Akt1 human T39 T39 LkKIRLDtETEGVPs 18354084 cyclin-dependent kinase functioning in S-phase; phosphorylation increases cyclin A binding
CELF1 Akt1 human S28 S28 GQVPRTWsEKDLREL 18570922 RNA-binding protein; phosphorylation enhances interaction with cyclin D1 mRNA
CENTB1 Akt1 human S554 S554 SIRPRPGsLRSKPEP 16256741 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ARF proteins; phosphorylation prevents recycling of b1-integrin containing endosomes and cell migration
CENTG1 Akt1 human S985 S985 THLSRVRsLDLDDWP 19176382 a GTPase activating protein for ARF1 and ARF5; phosphorylation enhances CENTG1 GTP binding and NF-kB activity
CFLAR Akt1 human S273 S273 LLRDTFTsLGYEVQK 19339247 a regulator of apoptosis; phosphorylation targets CFLAR for degradation
Chk1 Akt1 human S280 S280 AKRPRVtsGGVsEsP 15107605, 12062056 DNA damage effector that regulates G2/M transition during DNA damage; phosphorylation inhibits function by preventing phosphorylation by ATM/ATR
CK1-D Akt1 rat S370 S370 MERERKVsMRLHRGA 17594292 kinase and core component of circadian clock; phosphorylation inhibits kinase activity
CLK2 Akt1 human S34, T127 S34, T127 HKRRRSRsWSSSSDR, RRRRRSRtFSRSSSQ 20682768 a dual specificity serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase; phosphorylation increases cell survival after ionizing radiation
Cot Akt1 human S400 S400 EDQPRCQsLDSALLE 12138205 oncogene; phosphorylation induces NF-kB-dependent transcription
CREB Akt1 rat S133 S133 EILsRRPsYRkILND 9829964 bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements; activated by phosphorylation
CTNNB1 Akt1, Akt2 human S552 S552 QDtQRRtsMGGtQQQ 17287208 Wnt signaling pathway protein; phosphorylation causes nuclear localization
CTNND2 Akt1 mouse T454 T457 tGTFRtstAPssPGV 17993462 transcriptional activator, plays a role in adhesion molecule regulation; phosphorylation promotes binding to p190RhoGEF, dendritic morphogenesis
Cx43 Akt1 rat S369 S369 RPssRAssRAssRPR 18163231 gap junction protein; phosphorylation allows 14-3-3 binding
  Akt1, Akt3 rat S373 S373 RAssRAssRPRPDDL 17008717, 18163231 gap junction protein; phosphorylation allows 14-3-3 binding
DLC1 Akt1 rat S330 S766 VTRTRSLsTCNKRVG 16338927 tumor suppressor and insulin stimulated phosphoprotein, may play role in Glut4 translocation; phosphorylation may inhibit its GAP activity
DNAJC5 Akt1 rat S10 S10 DQRQRsLsTSGESLY 16243840 exocytosis; phosphorylation regulates the kinetics of late stage exocytosis
DNMT1 Akt1 human S143 S143 RtPRRsksDGEAkPE 21151116 a maintenance methyltransferase, transferring proper methylation patterns to newly synthesized DNA during replication; phosphorylation increases DNMT1 stability and prevents methylation
EDC3 Akt1, Akt2 human S161 S161 sFRRRHNsWssSsRH 20051463 involved in removal of the mRNA 5’ cap structure; phosphorylation induces 14-3-3 protein interaction and promotes ED3 mediated post-transcriptional regulation through mRNA
EDG-1 Akt1 human T236 T236 RTRSRRLtFRKNISK 11583630 G protein-coupled receptor; phosphorylation activates signaling to promote cell migration
eIF4B Akt1 mouse S422 S422 RERsRtGsEssQtGA 18836482 necessary for binding of mRNA to ribosomes; phosphorylation increases transcriptional activity
ENaC-α Akt1 rat S621 S594 RFRSRYWsPGRGARG 21220922 an amiloride sensitive epithelial sodium channel that mediates sodium reabsorption; phosphorylation increases ENaC specific activity
eNOS Akt1 human S615, S1177 S615, S1177 SYKIRFNsISCSDPL, TsRIRtQsFsLQERQ 12511559, 12446767, 10376603, 18622039, 12171920 enzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO); phosphorylation results in enzyme activation, NO production, and cardiovascular homeostasis (vasodilation, vascular remodeling, angiogenesis)
EphA2 Akt1 human S897 S897 RVsIRLPstsGsEGV 19573808 receptor tyrosine kinase that binds to a GPI-anchored ephrin A ligand for regulation of cell adhesion, cell migration, axon guidance, and homeostasis; phosphorylation regulates EphA2 induced cell migration and invasion
ER-α Akt1, Akt2 human S167 S167 GGRERLAsTNDKGSM 11139588, 16113102, 11507039 nuclear receptor and transcription factor; phosphorylation activates the receptor and increases gene expression, causing mammary and uterine cell proliferation
  Akt1 human S305 S305 IkRSkkNsLALSLtA 20101208 nuclear receptor and transcription factor; phosphorylation activates the receptor and increases gene expression, causing mammary and uterine cell proliferation
ER-β Akt1 mouse S236 D236 VRRQRSAsEQVHCLN 17166829 nuclear receptor and transcription factor; phosphorylation prevents cofactor binding and decreases activity
EZH2 Akt1 human S21 S21 CWRKRVKsEYMRLRQ 16224021 methyltransferase; phosphorylation decreases histone H3 methylation of Lys27 and increases gene expression
ezrin Akt2 human T567 T567 QGRDKYKtLRQIRQG 15531580 plasma membrane/cytoskeletal linker protein; phosphorylation promotes actin binding and cytoskeletal organization
FANCA Akt1 human S1149 S1149 CLRSRDPsLMVDFIL 11855836 ATPase involved in DNA repair; phosphorylation is negatively regulated by Akt
FLEG1 Akt1 human S486 S486 GLEtRRLsLPSsKAK 17256767 a chaperone protein involved in directing specific histones to the centromere; phosphorylation allows binding to 14-3-3
FLNC Akt1, Akt2 human S2233 S2233 LGRERLGsFGsItRQ 15461588 muscle-specific filamin functioning in muscle cells; phosphorylation effect currently unknown
FOXA2 Akt1 human T156 T156 KTYRRSYtHAKPPYS 14500912 transcription factor involved in embryonic development and differentiation; phosphorylation results in nuclear exclusion and inhibition of FoxA2-dependent transcriptional activity
FOXG1 Akt1 human T279 T279 KLRRRSttsRAKLAF 17435750 transcriptional repression factor involved in brain development; phosphorylation promotes nuclear export
FOXO1A Akt1 human S256, S319, T24 S256, S319, T24 sPrRrAAsMDNNSkF, TFRPRtssNAsTIsG, LPRPRSCtWPLPRPE 15668399, 10358075, 11237865, 16076959, 11311120 transcription factor involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism; phosphorylation causes export from the nucleus and inhibits activity
FOXO3A Akt1 human S253, T32 S253, T32 APRRRAVsMDNSNKY, QSRPRsCtWPLQRPE 10910908, 10995739, 10102273, 11154281 transcription factor involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis; phosphorylation causes export from the nucleus and inhibits activity
FOXO4 Akt1 human S197, S262, T32 S197, S262, T32 APRRRAAsMDSSSKL, TFRPRSssNASSVST, QSRPRsCtWPLPRPE 11313479, 11313479, 10217147, 16272144 transcription factor involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and insulin signaling; phosphorylation causes export from the nucleus and inhibits activity
Gab2 Akt1 human S159 S159 LLRERKSsAPSHsSQ 11782427 docking/scaffolding protein, proto-oncogene, RTK signaling intermediate; phosphorylation inhibits activity
GABRB2 Akt1 rat S434 S434 SRLRRRAsQLKITIP 12818177 receptor that mediates fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain; phosphorylation increases the number of receptors on the cell surface
GAPDH Akt2 human T237 T237 GMAFRVPtANVSVVD 21979951 catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis; phosphorylation decreases nuclear translocation and GAPDH induced apoptosis
GATA1 Akt1 human S310 S310 QTRNRKAsGkGkkkR 16107690 transcription factor; phosphorylation increases activity and promotes blood cell differentiation
GATA2 Akt1 human S401 S401 QTRNRKMsNKSKKSK 15837948 transcription factor; phosphorylation inhibits activity to promote adipogenesis and reduce inflammation
girdin Akt1 human S1417 S1417 INRERQKsLtLTPTR 16139227 actin binding protein; phosphorylation promotes cell migration
GOLGA3 Akt1 mouse S174, S385 S174, S389 VKRHRERsSQPAtKM, EVRsRRDsICsSVSM 17888676 golgi auto-antigen; phosphorylation results in reduced apoptosis
Grb10 Akt1 mouse S455 S428 NAPMRsVsENsLVAM 15722337 an adaptor protein that interacts with many receptor tyrosine kinases as well as downstream signal molecules; phosphorylation allows binding to 14-3-3
GSK-3α Akt1 human S21 S21 SGRARtssFAEPGGG 11340086, 11563975, 11577096 serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase; phosphorylation inhibits activity
GSK-3β Akt1 human S9 S9 SGRPRttsFAESCKP 12900420, 15457186, 11563975, 11340086, 11577096, 8985174 serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase; phosphorylation inhibits activity
H2B Akt1 human S37 S37 RKRsRkEsysIyVyk 8985174 core component of the nucleosome; phosphorylation effect currently unknown
H3 Akt1 mouse S10 S10 tKQTARksTGGkAPR 12529330 core component of the nucleosome; phosphorylation is correlated with chromosome condensation during mitosis and meiosis
HMOX1 Akt1 human S188 S188 LYRSRMNsLEMtPAV 15581622 heme oxygenase involved in stress response; phosphorylation regulates binding affinity
hnRNP A1 Akt1 human S199 S199 sQrGrsGsGNFGGGr 18562319 involved in pre-mRNA packaging into hnRNP particles and transport of poly(A) mRNA from cytoplasm to nucleus; phosphorylation regulates role in cyclin D1 and c-Myc IRES activity
hnRNP E1 Akt1, Akt2 mouse S43 S43 VKRIREEsGARINIS 20154680 binds to single-stranded nucleic acid; phosphorylation results in disruption of BAT element binding and translational activation of Dab2 and ILEI mRNA
HSP27 Akt1 human S82 S82 RALsRQLssGVSEIR 12740362 heat shock protein that confers cellular resistance to stress and adverse environmental change; phosphorylation alters tertiary structure, modulates actin polymerization, and reorganization
HTRA2 Akt1, Akt2 human S212 S212 RVRVRLLsGDTYEAV 17311912 protease released during apoptosis; phosphorylation inhibits activity and attenuates its pro-apoptotic function
Huntingtin Akt1 human S421 S421 GGRsRsGsIVELIAG 12062094, 14725621, 15843398, 16452687 Huntington’s disease; Akt phosphorylation blocks nuclear aggregation and provides neuroprotection
IKK-α Akt1, Akt2 human T23 T23 EMRERLGtGGFGNVC 18515365, 12048203, 10485710, 19609947 NF-kB signaling intermediate; phosphorylation activates NF-kB and immune/stress response
IP3R1 Akt1 rat S2682 S2690 FPRMRAMsLVSSDSE 16332683 Ca2+ release and signaling; phosphorylation induces resistance to apoptosis, possibly through caspase-3 inactivation
IRAK1 Akt1 human T100 T100 LRARDIItAWHPPAP 11976320 a serine/threonine-specific IL-1 receptor-associated kinase involved in Toll signaling; phosphorylation inhibits IRAK mediated NK-kB activation
IRS1 Akt1 human S629 S629 VPSGRKGsGDyMPMs 17640984 insulin receptor signaling intermediate; phosphorylation inhibits function
  Akt1 rat S522 S527 RFRKRTHsAGTSPTI 17579213 insulin receptor signaling intermediate; phosphorylation inhibits function
KHSRP Akt1, Akt2 human S193 S193 GLPERSVsLTGAPES 17177604 recruits degradation machinery, activates mRNA turnover, regulates splicing; phosphorylation inhibits RNA turnover by degradation
Kv11.1 iso5 Akt1 human T897 T897 SFRRRtDtDtEQPGE 18791070 pore-forming subunit of voltage-gated potassium channels, essential for rhythmic excitability of cardiac muscle and endocrine cells; phosphorylation inhibits channels
Lamin A/C Akt1 rat S301, S404 S301, S404 RSRGRASsHSSQSQG 18808171 component of nuclear lamina; phosphorylation regulates function of nuclear lamina
LTB4R2 Akt1 human T355 T355 GGRsREGtMELRTTP 22044535 a low-affinity leukotriene receptor involved in chemotaxis; phosphorylation regulates activation of chemotactic responses
Mad1 Akt1 human S145 S145 IERIRMDsIGSTVSS 18451027, 19526459 component of spindle-assembly checkpoint; phosphorylation results in ubiquitination and degradation through 26S proteasome pathway
MDM2 Akt1 human S166, S186, S188 S166, S186, S188 SsRRRAIsEtEENsD, RQRKRHKsDsIsLsF, RKRHKsDsIsLsFDE 11715018, 15169778, 11504915, 11850850, 11923280, 15527798, 11960368 ubiquitin ligase involved in p53 degradation; phosphorylation results in translocation to the nucleus and inhibition of p53
MDM4 Akt1 human S367 S367 PDCRRtIsAPVVRPK 18356162 RING-finger domain protein involved in p53 degradation and apoptosis; phosphorylation stabilizes MDM4 and MDM2
METTL1 Akt1 human S27 S27 yYRQrAHsNPMADHT 15861136 catalyzes the formation of m7G46 in tRNA; phosphorylation results in inactivation
MKK4 Akt1 human S80 S80 IERLRtHsIEsSGKL 15911620, 11707464 signaling intermediate of the JNK/SAPK pathway involved in stress/inflammation; phosphorylation inhibits activity
MLK3 Akt1 human S674 S674 PGRERGEsPTtPPTP 12458207 JNK-mediated neuronal cell death; phosphorylation inhibits activity
MST1 Akt1 human T120 T120 IIRLRNktLTEDEIA 19940129 pro-apoptotic kinase; phosphorylation inhibits kinase activity and nuclear translocation resulting in inhibition of pro-apoptotic signaling
MST2 Akt1 human T117, T384 T117, T384 IIRLRNktLIEDEIA, GTMKRNAtsPQVQRP 20231902, 20086174 upstream activator of the MAPK pathway that regulates apoptosis, morphogenesis, and cytoskeletal rearrangements; phosphorylation inhibits pro-apoptotic activity
mTOR Akt1 human T2446, S2448 T2446, S2448 RsRtRtDsysAGQsV 15208671, 10910062, 10567225 protein synthesis and cell growth; phosphorylation increases activity
MYO5A Akt2 mouse S1650 S1652 GLRKRtssIADEGty 17515613 actin-based motor protein with a role in cytoplasmic vesicle transport and anchorage; phosphorylation promotes insulin-mediated Glut4 vesicle translocation
Myt1 Akt1 starfish S75 S83 ESRPRAVsFRQSEPS 11802161 Wee1 family member and cell cycle regulator; phosphorylation downregulates Myt1 and initiates M-phase
NDRG2 Akt1 human S332, T348 S332, T348 LsRsRtAsLtsAAsV, GNRsRsRtLsQssEs 15461589 insulin-stimulated phosphoprotein; phosphorylation promotes insulin signaling
NFAT90 Akt1 human S647 S647 rGrGRGGsIRGRGRG 18097023, 20870937 translation inhibitory protein; phosphorylation required for nuclear export
NHE1 Akt1 human S648, S703, S796 S648, S703, S796 KTRQRLRsyNRHTLV, MsRARIGsDPLAyEP, QRIQRCLsDPGPHPE 18757828, 20026127 sodium/hydrogen exchanger involved in pH regulation and signal transduction; phosphorylation inhibits activity
NMDAR2C Akt1 mouse S1084 S1081 GPRPRHAsLPSSVAE 19477150 Glutamate receptor channel subunit; phosphorylation promotes binding to 14-3-3e and leads to increased surface expression of cerebellar NMDA receptors
  Akt1 rat S1083 S1081 GPRPRHAsLPSSVAE 19477150 Glutamate receptor channel subunit; phosphorylation promotes binding to 14-3-3e and leads to increased surface expression of cerebellar NMDA receptors
NuaK1 Akt1 human S600 S600 PARQRIRsCVSAENF 15060171, 12409306 AMPK family member activated under glucose starvation that mediates cell survival; phosphorylation increases kinase activity
Nur77 Akt1 human S351 S351 GRRGRLPsKPKQPPD 16434970, 11274386 a nuclear receptor and transcription factor regulating T cell apoptosis; phosphorylation inhibits transcriptional activity
p21 Cip1 Akt1 human S146, T145 S146, T145 GRkRRQtsMTDFYHs, QGRkRRQtsMTDFYH 17855660, 11231573, 11756412, 15173090, 11463845, 116982699 regulates cell cycle and cell survival; phosphorylation increases protein stability
p27Kip1 Akt1 human S10, T157, T198 S10, T157, T198 NVRVsNGsPsLErMD, GIRkrPAtDDSSTQN, PGLRRRQt_______ 18710949, 12042314, 12244302 a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that enforces the G1 cell cycle restriction point; phosphorylation promotes 14-3-3 binding and cytoplasmic localization
p300 Akt1 human S1834 S1834 MLRRRMAsMQRTGVV 16024795, 11116148 transcriptional co-activator; phosphorylation can either activate or suppress transcriptional activity depending on cell type and physiological stimuli
p47phox Akt1 human S304, S328 S304, S328 GAPPRRssIRNAHSI, QDAYRRNsVRFLQQR 12734380 a component of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase multiprotein enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to superoxide in response to pathogenic invasion; phosphorylation regulates p47hox respiratory burst activity
PAK1 Akt1 mouse S21 S21 APPMRNTsTMIGAGS 14585966 a p21-activated kinase engaged in cytoskeletal reorganization, MAPK signaling, apoptotic signaling, control of phagocyte NADPH oxidase, and growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth; phosphorylation at Ser21 regulates binding with the adaptor protein Nck
palladin Akt1 human S1118 S1118 VRRPRsRsRDsGDEN 20471940 actin-bundling protein; phosphorylation promotes F-actin bundling and inhibits cell migration
PAR-4 Akt1 rat S249 N257 SRHNRDTsAPANFAS 16209943 a pro-apoptotic factor that activates the Fas-FADD-caspase-8 pathway as well as inhibits the NF-κB pro-survival pathway; phosphorylation prevents nuclear translocation, promoting cell survival
PDCD4 Akt1 human S67, S457 S67, S457 kRRLRKNssRDsGRG, RGRKRFVsEGDGGRL 16357133 tumor suppressor protein that is strongly induced during apoptosis; phosphorylation inhibits tumor suppressor function
PDE3A Akt1 mouse S290, S291, S292 S290, S291, S292 GWKRRRRsssVVAGE, WKRRRRsssVVAGEM, KRRRRsssVVAGEMS 17124499 regulates levels of cAMP and cGMP, insulin-dependent oocyte maturation; phosphorylation increases activity
PDE3B Akt1 mouse S273 S295 VIRPRRRssCVsLGE 10454575 regulates levels of cAMP and cGMP, activated by insulin to regulate lipolysis; phosphorylation increases activity
PEA-15 Akt1 human S116 S116 KDIIRQPsEEEIIKL 12808093 a phosphoprotein shown to coordinate cell growth, death, and glucose utilization; phosphorylation mediates binding to FADD or Erk and further regulates the Erk and apoptosis signaling pathways
peripherin Akt1 mouse S66 S59 SSSARLGsFRAPRAG 17569669 neuronal intermediate filament protein; phosphorylation promotes motor nerve regeneration
PFKFB2 Akt1 human S466, S483 S466, S483 PVRMRRNsFtPLSSS, IRRPRNysVGSRPLK 12853467 glycolytic enzyme, insulin-mediated glucose metabolism; phosphorylation increases activity
PFKFB3 Akt1 human S461 S461 NPLMRRNsVtPLAsP 15896703 synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate; phosphorylation decreases sensitivity to inhibition
PGC-1 α Akt1, Akt2 mouse S570 S571 RMRSRsRsFsRHRSC 17554339 regulates gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation; phosphorylation inhibits function
PIP5K Akt1 human S307 S307 PARNRsAsItNLsLD 15546921 a protein/ lipid kinase involved in membrane trafficking; phosphorylated in response to insulin
  Akt1 mouse S105 S105 EELHRRSsVLENTLP 20513353 a protein/ lipid kinase involved in membrane trafficking; phosphorylated in response to insulin
PLB Akt1 rat S16 S16 RSAIRRAstIEMPQQ 18838385 a major phosphoprotein calcium regulation component of the sarcoplasmic reticulum; phosphorylation causes release of inhibition and increases calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum
PLCG1 Akt1 human S1248 S1248 HGRAREGsFEsRyQQ 16525023 catalyzes PI 4,5 bisphosphate to IP3 and DAG, increases intracellular Ca2+ levels; phosphorylation increases activity and enhances EGF-stimulated cell motility
PPP1CA Akt1 human T320 T320 NPGGRPItPPRNSAK 14633703 a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in cell cycle regulation; phosphorylation inhibits activity
PRAS40 Akt1 human T246 T246 LPRPRLNtsDFQKLK 12524439, 17277771, 18372248 binds to and inhibits mTOR; phosphorylation causes 14-3-3 binding/inhibition and results in increased protein synthesis
PRPF19 Akt1 human T193 T193 ERKKRGKtVPEELVK 20629186 a member of the splicesome that also functions in DNA double strand break repair; phosphorylation allows 14-3-3 binding
PRPK Akt1 human S250 S250 RLRGRKRsMVG____ 17712528 p53 binding protein and kinase; phosphorylation causes activation and results in p53 phosphorylation
PTP1B Akt1 human S50 S50 RNRyRDVsPFDHsRI 11579209 protein tyrosine phosphatase that dephosphorylates the insulin receptor; phosphorylation inhibits activity
QIK Akt2 mouse S358 S358 DGRQRRPstIAEQTV 17805301 AMPK related protein; phosphorylation leads to kinase activation and promotes ubiquitination/degradation of TORC2
Rac1 Akt1 human S71 S71 yDRLRPLsYPQTDVF 10617634 Rho-GTPase, actin cytoskeletal organization; phosphorylation inhibits GTP-binding activity
Raf1 Akt1 mouse S259 S259 SQRQRStsTPNVHMV 12087097, 12087097 signaling intermediate in Erk1/2 pathway; phosphorylation inhibits activity
  Akt1 rat S259 S259 SQRQRSTsTPNVHMV 11443134 signaling intermediate in Erk1/2 pathway; phosphorylation inhibits activity
RANBP3 Akt1 human S126 S126 VKRERtssLtQFPPs 18280241 RAN binding protein 3 functions in nuclear transport; phosphorylation mediates Ran binding and regulates nuclear transport
RARA Akt1 human S96 S96 FVCQDKSsGYHYGVS 16417524 nuclear receptor for retinoic acid that acts as a direct regulator of gene expression, phosphorylation of the DNA binding domain inhibits RARA activity
RGC32 Akt1 human S65 S65 ERMKRRSsAsVSDSS 19162005 a regulator of cell cycle-specific kinases in response to DNA damage; phosphorylation leads to activation and regulation of growth factors
RNF11 Akt1 human T135 T135 DWLMRSFtCPSCMEP 16123141 a member of a ubiquitin editing complex that modulates transient inflammatory signaling; phosphorylation allows 14-3-3 binding
Ron Akt1 human S1394 S1394 VRRPRPLsEPPRPT_ 12919677, 14505491 receptor tyrosine kinase for macrophage stimulating protein (MSP), cell adhesion, proliferation and migration; phosphorylation causes 14-3-3 binding
RPS3 Akt1 human T70 T70 GrrIrELtAVVQkRF 20605787 a member of the 40S ribosomal subunit that also induces neuronal apoptosis and acts as an endonuclease; phosphorylation inhibits proapoptotic function, increases nuclear import/accumulation, and increases DNA repair
S6 Akt1 mouse S236 S236 AKRRRLssLRAstsK 12151408 S6 ribosomal protein; phosphorylation activates the protein and promotes protein synthesis
  Akt1, Akt2 rat S235, S236 S235, S236 IAKRRRLssLRAsts, AKRRRLssLRAstsK 15358595 S6 ribosomal protein; phosphorylation activates the protein and promotes protein synthesis
SFRS5 Akt2 rat S86 S86 GRGRGRYsDRFSSRR 15684423 a member of the splicesome involved in constitutive and alternative splicing; phosphorylation activates alternative splicing exon inclusion
SH3BP4 Akt1 mouse S245 S246 FRSKRSysLsELsVL 19122209 controls selective internalization of the transferrin receptor through endocytosis; phosphorylation promotes 14-3-3 binding at the plasma membrane
SH3RF1 Akt1, Akt2 human S304 S304 KNTKKRHsFtsLTMA 17535800 scaffolding protein that binds to activated Rac and promotes apoptosis via JNK activation; phosphorylation reduces ability to bind Rac, promoting apoptosis
SKI Akt1 human T458 T458 QPRKRKLtVDTPGAP 19875456 negative regulator of TGF-b signaling by binding to Smads; phosphorylation causes its destabilization and reduces SKI-mediated inhibition of expression of Smad7
SOX2 Akt1 mouse T118 T116 kYRPRRktkTLMkKD 20945330 a transcription factor required for early embryogenesis and embryonic stem cell pluripotency; phosphorylation stabilizes SOX2, increasing transcriptional activity
SRPK2 Akt1 human T492 T492 PSHDRSRtVsAsstG 19592491 a protein kinase targeting the serine/arginine family of splicing factors; phosphorylation causes nuclear translocation and upregulation of targets regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis
SSB Akt1 mouse T301 T302 LLRNKKVtWKVLEGH 18836485 RNA binding protein, plays a role in processing of RNA polymerase III transcripts; phosphorylation promotes export to cytoplasm where it binds polysomes and regulates expression of a specific set of mRNAs
STXBP4 Akt2 mouse S99 S99 RAKLRsEsPWEIAFI 15753124 inhibits formation and translocation of intracellular vesicles; insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of STXBP4 releases inhibition
SYTL1 Akt1 human S241 S241 RMLSSSSsVSSLNSS 15998322 a secretory factor family member that is involved in granule exocytosis; phosphorylation regulates SYTL1 subnuclear localization
TAL1 Akt1 human T90 T90 EARHRVPttELCRPP 15930267, 19406989 transcription factor; phosphorylation inhibits transcriptional repressor activity and regulates intracellular localization
TBC1D1 Akt1 human T596 T596 AFRRRANtLsHFPIE 17995453 Rab GTPase-activating protein involved in insulin-stimulated Glut4 trafficking; phosphorylation promotes glucose transport
TERT Akt1 human S227, S824 S227, S824 GARRRGGsASRSLPL, AVRIRGKsYVQCQGI 10224060 telomerase reverse transcriptase, chromosome length maintenance; phosphorylation enhances telomerase activity
THOC4 Akt1 human S34, T219 S34, T219 RGRGRAGsQGGrGGG, GGGtrRGtRGGARGR 18562279 an RNA binding and export protein that also acts as a chaperone for dimerization of transcription factors; phosphorylation regulates THOC4 subnuclear localization and activates mRNA export and cell proliferation
TOPBP1 Akt1 human S1159 S1159 EERARLAsNLQWPSC 19477925 induces a large increase in the kinase activity of ATR; phosphorylation prevents the enhanced association of ATR with TopBP1 after DNA damage
TRF1 Akt1 human T273 T273 SKRTRTItSQDKPSG 19160102 controls telomere structure; phosphorylation decreases telomere length
TSC2 Akt1 human S939, S981, T1462 S939, S981, T1462 sFRARstsLNERPKs, AFRCRSIsVSEHVVR, GLRPRGytIsDSAPs 15342917, 12150915, 16636147 tumor suppressor that inhibits mTOR; phosphorylation inhibits function and allows protein synthesis to occur
  Akt1 rat S1130, S1132 S1130, S1132 GARDRVRsMsGGHGL, RDRVRsMsGGHGLRV 12172553 tumor suppressor that inhibits mTOR; phosphorylation inhibits function and allows protein synthesis to occur
TTC3 Akt1 human S378 S378 AYTPRsLsAPIFTTS 20059950 E3 ligase to Akt; phosphorylation promotes TTC3 function, such as ability to ubiquitinylate and destabilize Akt
TWIST1 Akt1 human S42, S123 S42, S123 GGRKRRSsRRSAGGG, RERQRTQsLNEAFAA 20400976 a regulatory basic helix-loop-helix anti-apoptotic transcription factor; phosphorylation activates TWIST1, causing inhibition of p53 and promotion of cell survival
USP8 Akt1 mouse T907 T945 TCRRRSRtFEAFMYL 17210635 deubiquitinating enzyme that plays a role in growth factor receptor trafficking and degradation; phosphorylation increases protein stability
VCP Akt1 human S352, S746, S748 S352, S746, S748 AAtNRPNsIDPALRR, AMRFARRsVsDNDIR, RFARRsVsDNDIRky 16551632, 16027165 ATPase and molecular chaperone; phosphorylation may impair its pro-apoptotic effects and promote cell survival
Vimentin Akt1 human S39 S39 ttsTrtysLGsALRP 20856200 a cytoskeletal intermediate filament protein; phosphorylation induces cellular motility and invasion by protection from proteolysis
Wee1 Akt1 human S642 S642 KKMNRsVsLTIy___ 15964826 a protein kinase that inhibits cell cycle progression by phosphorylation inhibition of cdc2 kinase; phosphorylation promotes a change in Wee1 localization from nuclear to cytoplasmic and is associated with G2/M arrest
WNK1 Akt1 human T60 T60 EYRRRRHtMDKDSRG 14611643, 16081417 regulates ion channels; phosphorylation of WNK1 causes SGK1 activation and regulation of sodium ion transport
XIAP Akt1, Akt2 human S87 S87 VGRHRKVsPNCRFIN 14645242, 17537996 inhibitor of apoptosis; phosphorylation prevents ubiquitination/degradation and causes increased cell survival
YAP1 Akt1 human S127 S127 PQHVRAHssPAsLQL 12535517 a transcriptional co-activator of PEBP2 and other transcription factors; phosphorylation suppresses p73-mediated apoptosis
YB-1 Akt1 human S102 S102 NPRKyLRsVGDGEtV 22417301 a transcription/translation factor involved in mRNA stability and expression; phosphorylation induces activation and translocation to the nucleus
zyxin Akt1 human S142 S142 PQPREKVssIDLEId 17572661 a focal adhesion molecule that moves between the cytoplasm and nucleus; phosphorylation promotes an association with acinus and anti-apoptotic activity

created October 2008

revised April 2013