MAP Kinase Signaling Resources
Our scientists are at the bench daily to produce and validate our antibodies, so they have hands-on experience and knowledge of each antibody’s performance.
CST signaling pathway diagrams allow you to click on individual nodes to find research resources or product information. You can also download the pathway diagrams for educational and research purposes.
Overview of MAP Kinase SignalingMitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a highly conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in a variety of fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, motility, stress response, apoptosis, and survival. Conventional MAPKs include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2 or p44/42), the c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1-3 (JNK1-3)/ stress activated protein kinases (SAPK1A, 1B, 1C), the p38 isoforms (p38α, β, γ, and δ), and Erk5. The lesser-studied, atypical MAPKs include Nemo-like kinase (NLK), Erk3/4, and Erk7/8. Signaling via the conventional MAPKs follows a classical three-tiered kinase cascade: MAPKKK→ MAPKK→MAPK. A broad range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, cytokines, growth factors, and cellular stressors, such as heat shock and UV irradiation stimulate the small GTPases of the Ras/Rho family, leading to activation of a MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK). MAPKKK phosphorylates and activates a downstream MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which in turn phosphorylates and activates a MAPK. Activation of MAPKs leads to the phosphorylation and activation of specific MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs), such as members of the RSK, MSK, or MNK family, and MK2/3/5. These MAPKAPKs function to amplify the signal and mediate the broad range of biological processes regulated by the different MAPKs.
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- Raman M, Chen W, Cobb MH (2007) Differential regulation and properties of MAPKs. Oncogene 26(22), 3100–12.
- Turjanski AG, Vaqus JP, Gutkind JS (2007) MAP kinases and the control of nuclear events. Oncogene 26(22), 3240–53.
- Dhillon AS, Hagan S, Rath O, Kolch W (2007) MAP kinase signalling pathways in cancer. Oncogene 26(22), 3279–90.
- Boutros T, Chevet E, Metrakos P (2008) Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/MAP kinase phosphatase regulation: roles in cell growth, death, and cancer. Pharmacol. Rev. 60(3), 261–310.
- Keshet Y, Seger R (2010) The MAP kinase signaling cascades: a system of hundreds of components regulates a diverse array of physiological functions. Methods Mol. Biol. 661, 3–38.
- Gehart H, Kumpf S, Ittner A, Ricci R (2010) MAPK signalling in cellular metabolism: stress or wellness? EMBO Rep. 11(11), 834–40.
- Plotnikov A, Zehorai E, Procaccia S, Seger R (2011) The MAPK cascades: signaling components, nuclear roles and mechanisms of nuclear translocation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1813(9), 1619–33.
- Huang P, Han J, Hui L (2010) MAPK signaling in inflammation-associated cancer development. Protein Cell 1(3), 218–26.
- Cargnello M, Roux PP (2011) Activation and function of the MAPKs and their substrates, the MAPK-activated protein kinases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 75(1), 50–83.