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13173S 100 µl (50 tests) $329.00
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REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) Isotype
H M R Endogenous 14, 16 Rabbit IgG
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Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells, chloroquine-treated (50 μM, overnight; left), nutrient-starved with EBSS (4 hr, middle), or untreated (right) using LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate) #13173 (red) and β-Actin (8H10D10) Mouse mAb #3700 (green). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).

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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Methanol, 100%
  3. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal goat serum (#5425) / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml: add 0.5 ml normal goat serum and 0.5 ml 20X PBS to 9.0 ml dH2O, mix. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
  5. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multi-well plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with ice-cold 100% methanol.
  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 minutes at -20°C.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 minutes.
  2. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on datasheet in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  3. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  4. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  5. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  6. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  7. For best results, examine specimens immediately using appropriate excitation wavelength. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted December 2010

protocol id: 221

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Immunofluorescence 1:50

Storage: Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.

Specificity / Sensitivity

LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total LC3A and LC3B proteins.


Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Monkey, Xenopus, Bovine, Dog, Pig

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Leu44 of human LC3B protein (conserved in LC3A).

Product Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb #12741.


Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but it has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, and cancer (3). Autophagy marker Light Chain 3 (LC3) was originally identified as a subunit of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B (termed MAP1LC3) (4) and subsequently found to contain similarity to the yeast protein Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 critical for autophagy (5). Three human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy (6-9). Cleavage of LC3 at the carboxy terminus immediately following synthesis yields the cytosolic LC3-I form. During autophagy, LC3-I is converted to LC3-II through lipidation by a ubiquitin-like system involving Atg7 and Atg3 that allows for LC3 to become associated with autophagic vesicles (6-10). The presence of LC3 in autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3 to the lower migrating form, LC3-II, have been used as indicators of autophagy (11).


1.  Levine, B. and Yuan, J. (2005) J. Clin. Invest. 115, 2679-88.

2.  Kabeya, Y. et al. (2004) J Cell Sci 117, 2805-12.

3.  Mann, S.S. and Hammarback, J.A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11492-97.

4.  Lang, T. et al. (1998) EMBO J. 17, 3597-607.

5.  Kabeya, Y. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 5720-28.

6.  He, H. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 29278-87.

7.  Tanida, I. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 47704-10.

8.  Reggiori, F. and Klionsky, D.J. (2002) Eukaryot Cell 1, 11-21.

9.  Wu, J. et al. (2006) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 339, 437-42.

10.  Codogno, P. and Meijer, A.J. (2005) Cell Death Differ 12 Suppl 2, 1509-18.

11.  Ichimura, Y. et al. (2000) Nature 408, 488-92.


Entrez-Gene Id 84557, 81631
Swiss-Prot Acc. Q9H492, Q9GZQ8


For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Life Technologies Corporation.
The Alexa Fluor® dye antibody conjugates in this product are sold under license from Life Technologies Corporation for research use only, except for use in combination with DNA microarrays. The Alexa Fluor® dyes (except for Alexa Fluor® 430 dye) are covered by pending and issued patents. Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.