Product Pathways - Chromatin Regulation / Epigenetics
HMGB2 Antibody #11944
|W||H M R Mk (Hm) (B) (Dg) (GP) (Hr)||Endogenous||28||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Hm=Hamster Mk=Monkey B=Bovine Dg=Dog GP=Guinea Pig Hr=Horse
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
HMGB2 Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total HMGB2 protein. This antibody does not cross-react with other HMGB proteins.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Gly171 of human HMGB2 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
High mobility group protein B2 (HMGB2) belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins that contain HMG box domains (1,2). All three family members (HMGB1, HMGB2, and HMGB3) contain two HMG box domains and a C-terminal acidic domain. HMGB1 is a widely expressed and highly abundant protein (2). HMGB2 is widely expressed during embryonic development, but it is restricted to lymphoid organs and testis in adult animals (3). HMGB3 is only expressed during embryogenesis (4). While expression varies, the biochemical properties of the different family members may be indistinguishable. The HMG box domains facilitate the binding of HMGB proteins to the minor groove of DNA, which results in local bending of the DNA double helix (1,2). HMGB proteins are recruited by and help facilitate the assembly of site-specific DNA binding proteins to their cognate binding sites in chromatin. For example, HMGB1 and HMGB2 facilitate the binding of Hox proteins, Oct proteins, p53, Rel proteins, and steroid hormone receptor proteins to their target gene promoters (1,2). Furthermore, HMGB2 interacts with RAG1 to facilitate RAG complex binding to the recombinant signal sequence (RSS) and stimulate DNA-bending and subsequent VDJ cleavage at antigen receptor genes (5,6). In addition to their functions in the nucleus, HMGB proteins play a significant role in extracellular signaling associated with inflammation. HMGB2 is secreted by myeloid cells and promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells by binding to the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) (7). Research studies have shown that HMGB2 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival time (8).
- Thomas, J.O. and Travers, A.A. (2001) Trends Biochem Sci 26, 167-74.
- Müller, S. et al. (2004) J Intern Med 255, 332-43.
- Ronfani, L. et al. (2001) Development 128, 1265-73.
- Vaccari, T. et al. (1998) Genomics 49, 247-52.
- Zhang, M. and Swanson, P.C. (2009) BMC Mol Biol 10, 24.
- Aidinis, V. et al. (1999) Mol Cell Biol 19, 6532-42.
- Pusterla, T. et al. (2009) Autoimmunity 42, 308-10.
- Kwon, J.H. et al. (2010) Clin Cancer Res 16, 5511-21.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.