Product Pathways - Autophagy Signaling
LC3 Control Cell Extracts #11972
|11972S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
Already purchased this product? Write a Review.
Total cell extracts from HeLa cells were untreated or treated with 50 μM chloroquine overnight. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer. Boil for 2 minutes in the original tube, then load 10 μl per mini-gel lane.
Western Blots: CST recommends boiling control cell extracts for two minutes prior to loading. Load 10 µl of each cell extract per lane.
Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but it has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, and cancer (3). Autophagy marker Light Chain 3 (LC3) was originally identified as a subunit of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B (termed MAP1LC3) (4) and subsequently found to contain similarity to the yeast protein Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 critical for autophagy (5). Three human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy (6-9). Cleavage of LC3 at the carboxy terminus immediately following synthesis yields the cytosolic LC3-I form. During autophagy, LC3-I is converted to LC3-II through lipidation by a ubiquitin-like system involving Atg7 and Atg3 that allows for LC3 to become associated with autophagic vesicles (6-10). The presence of LC3 in autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3 to the lower migrating form, LC3-II, have been used as indicators of autophagy (11).
- Reggiori, F. and Klionsky, D.J. (2002) Eukaryot. Cell 1, 11-21.
- Codogno, P. and Meijer, A.J. (2005) Cell Death Differ. 12 Suppl 2, 1509-18.
- Levine, B. and Yuan, J. (2005) J. Clin. Invest. 115, 2679-88.
- Mann, S.S. and Hammarback, J.A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11492-97.
- Lang, T. et al. (1998) EMBO J. 17, 3597-607.
- Kabeya, Y. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 5720-28.
- He, H. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 29278-87.
- Tanida, I. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 47704-10.
- Wu, J. et al. (2006) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 339, 437-42.
- Ichimura, Y. et al. (2000) Nature 408, 488-92.
- Kabeya, Y. et al. (2004) J. Cell Sci. 117, 2805-12.
Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.