Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Smad2/3 Control Cell Extracts #12052
|12052S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
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Nonphosphorylated Smad2/3 Control Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from HT-1080 cells, serum-starved overnight without treatment, serve as a negative control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer. Phosphorylated Smad2/3 Control Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from HT-1080 cells, serum-starved overnight and treated with hTGF-β3 #8425 (10 ng/ml, 30 min), serve as a positive control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer.
Western blot analysis of Smad2/3 Control Cell Extracts from HT-1080 cells, untreated (-) or treated with hTGF-β3 #8425 (10 ng/ml, 30 min; +), using Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) (138D4) Rabbit mAb #3108 (upper) or Smad2 (86F7) Rabbit mAb #3122 (lower).
As controls, we recommend using 10 μl of nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated Smad2/3 Control Cell Extracts. Boil for 2 minutes in the original tube, then load 10 μl per lane.
Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).
- Heldin, C.H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465-471.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10, 188-194.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 753-791.
- Whitman, M. (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 2445-2462.
- Wu, G. et al. (2000) Science 287, 92-97.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (2002) Science 296, 1646-1647.
- Moustakas, A. et al. (2001) J. Cell Sci. 114, 4359-4369.
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