Product Pathways - Ca / cAMP / Lipid Signaling
SignalSilence® S100P siRNA II #12114
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Western blot analysis of extracts from MCF7 cells, transfected with 100 nM SignalSilence® Control siRNA (Unconjugated) #6568 (-), SignalSilence® S100P siRNA I #12118 (+), or SignalSilence® S100P siRNA II (+), using S100P Antibody #7677 (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower). The S100P Antibody confirms silencing of S100P expression, while the β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb is used as a loading control.
SignalSilence® S100P siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit S100P expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
Oligonucleotide synthesis is monitored base by base through trityl analysis to ensure appropriate coupling efficiency. The oligo is subsequently purified by affinity-solid phase extraction. The annealed RNA duplex is further analyzed by mass spectrometry to verify the exact composition of the duplex. Each lot is compared to the previous lot by mass spectrometry to ensure maximum lot-to-lot consistency.
Directions for Use
CST recommends transfection with 100 nM SignalSilence® S100P siRNA II 48 to 72 hours prior to cell lysis. For transfection procedure, follow protocol provided by the transfection reagent manufacturer. Please feel free to contact CST with any questions on use.
Each vial contains the equivalent of 100 transfections, which corresponds to a final siRNA concentration of 100 nM per transfection in a 24-well plate with a total volume of 300 μl per well.
Despite their relatively small size (8-12 kDa) and uncomplicated architecture, S100 proteins regulate a variety of cellular processes such as cell growth and motility, cell cycle progression, transcription, and differentiation. To date, 25 members have been identified, including S100A1-S100A18, trichohyalin, filaggrin, repetin, S100P, and S100Z, making it the largest group in the EF-hand, calcium-binding protein family. Interestingly, 14 S100 genes are clustered on human chromosome 1q21, a region of genomic instability. Research studies have demonstrated that significant correlation exists between aberrant S100 protein expression and cancer progression. S100 proteins primarily mediate immune responses in various tissue types but are also involved in neuronal development (1-4).Each S100 monomer bears two EF-hand motifs and can bind up to two molecules of calcium (or other divalent cation in some instances). Structural evidence shows that S100 proteins form antiparallel homo- or heterodimers that coordinate binding partner proximity in a calcium-dependent (and sometimes calcium-independent) manner. Although structurally and functionally similar, individual members show restricted tissue distribution, are localized in specific cellular compartments, and display unique protein binding partners, which suggests that each plays a specific role in various signaling pathways. In addition to an intracellular role, some S100 proteins have been shown to act as receptors for extracellular ligands or are secreted and exhibit cytokine-like activities (1-4).
S100P, a member of the S100 family, is a 95 amino acid protein. Its expression is increased in a number of tumors including pancreas, lung, breast, and ovary carcinomas (5) in response to transcriptional activation (6). Abnormally high levels of S100P are thought to contribute to tumor development and metastatic properties (7).
- Heizmann, C.W. et al. (2002) Front Biosci 7, d1356-68.
- Donato, R. (2003) Microsc Res Tech 60, 540-51.
- Marenholz, I. et al. (2004) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 322, 1111-22.
- Santamaria-Kisiel, L. et al. (2006) Biochem J 396, 201-14.
- Jiang, H. et al. (2012) J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 138, 1-9.
- Gibadulinova, A. et al. (2008) Oncol Rep 20, 391-6.
- Arumugam, T. and Logsdon, C.D. (2011) Amino Acids 41, 893-9.
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- 6568 SignalSilence® Control siRNA (Unconjugated)
- 6201 SignalSilence® Control siRNA (Fluorescein Conjugate)
- 12118 SignalSilence® S100P siRNA I
- 7677 S100P Antibody
Limited Use Label License, RNA interference: This product is licensed under European Patent 1144623 and foreign equivalents from Ribopharma AG, Kulmbach, Germany and is provided only for use in non-commercial research specifically excluding use (a) in drug discovery or drug development, including target identification or target validation, by or on behalf of a commercial entity, (b) for contract research or commercial screening services, (c) for the production or manufacture of siRNA-related products for sale, or (d) for the generation of commercial databases for sale to Third Parties. Information about licenses for these and other commercial uses is available from Ribopharma AG, Fritz-Hornschuch-Str. 9, D-95326 Kulmbach, Germany.
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.