Product Pathways - Growth Factors/Cytokines
TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #12685
|12685S||100 µl (50 assays)||---||In Stock||---|
|12685||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
Already purchased this product? Write a Review.
Applications Key: IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry
Specificity / Sensitivity
TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total TNF-α protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant human TNF-α protein.
Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, untreated (left) or treated with TPA #4174 (40 nM, 4 hr), Ionomycin #9995 (2 μM, 4 hr) and Brefeldin A #9972 (1 μg/ml, last 3 hr of treatment) (right), using a CD3 antibody and TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate).
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of THP-1 cells, treated with TPA #4174 (80 nM, 16 hr) (left) or treated with TPA followed by LPS (1 μg/ml, 1 hr) (right), using TNF-α (D1G2) (Alexa Flour® 488 Conjugate) Rabbit mAb (IF/Flow Preferred) (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (IF/Flow Preferred) #8184.
TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).
Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
DRAQ5® is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
The Alexa Fluor® dye antibody conjugates in this product are sold under license from Molecular Probes, Inc., for research use only, except for use in combination with DNA microarrays. The Alexa Fluor® dyes (except for Alexa Fluor® 430 dye) are covered by pending and issued patents. Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.