Product Pathways - Tyrosine Kinase / Adaptors
β-Arrestin 1 (D8O3J) Rabbit mAb #12697
|12697S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|12697||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey||Endogenous||51||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation
Specificity / Sensitivity
β-arrestin 1 (D8O3J) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total β-arrestin 1 protein. This antibody does not cross-react with β-arrestin 2.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the carboxy terminus of human β-arrestin 1 protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from MDA-MB-435, Hep G2, and PANC-1 cells using β-Arrestin 1 (D8O3J) Rabbit mAb.
Western blot analysis of extracts from A549 cells, vehicle-treated (-) or treated with dexamethasone (100 nM, 24 h; +), using β-Arrestin 1 (D8O3J) Rabbit mAb (upper) and β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
Immunoprecipitation of β-Arrestin 1 protein from LN18 cell extracts, using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (lane 2) or β-Arrestin 1 (D8O3J) Rabbit mAb (lane 3). Lane 1 is 10% input. Western blot analysis was performed using β-Arrestin 1 (D8O3J) Rabbit mAb.
Arrestin proteins function as negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Cognate ligand binding stimulates GPCR phosphorylation, which is followed by binding of arrestin to the phosphorylated GPCR and the eventual internalization of the receptor and desensitization of GPCR signaling (1). Four distinct mammalian arrestin proteins are known. Arrestin 1 (also known as S-arrestin) and arrestin 4 (X-arrestin) are localized to retinal rods and cones, respectively. Arrestin 2 (also known as β-arrestin 1) and arrestin 3 (β-arrestin 2) are ubiquitously expressed and bind to most GPCRs (2). β-arrestins function as adaptor and scaffold proteins and play important roles in other processes, such as recruiting c-Src family proteins to GPCRs in Erk activation pathways (3,4). β-arrestins are also involved in some receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways (5-8). Additional evidence suggests that β-arrestins translocate to the nucleus and help regulate transcription by binding transcriptional cofactors (9,10).
Little is known about factors that regulate β-arrestin gene expression. However, a recent research study has shown that non-visual β-arrestins respond to glucocorticoid signaling, with differential responses observed among family members. Specifically, β-arrestin 1 expression is increased in response to glucorticoid receptor activation whereas β-arrestin 2 shows a concomitant decrease in expression (11).
- Shenoy, S.K. and Lefkowitz, R.J. (2005) Sci STKE 2005, cm10.
- Lefkowitz, R.J. and Shenoy, S.K. (2005) Science 308, 512-7.
- Luttrell, L.M. et al. (1999) Science 283, 655-61.
- Luttrell, L.M. et al. (1999) Curr Opin Cell Biol 11, 177-83.
- Luttrell, L.M. and Lefkowitz, R.J. (2002) J Cell Sci 115, 455-65.
- Waters, C. et al. (2004) Semin Cell Dev Biol 15, 309-23.
- Lefkowitz, R.J. and Whalen, E.J. (2004) Curr Opin Cell Biol 16, 162-8.
- Waters, C.M. et al. (2005) Cell Signal 17, 263-77.
- Kang, J. et al. (2005) Cell 123, 833-47.
- Ma, L. and Pei, G. (2007) J Cell Sci 120, 213-8.
- Oakley, R.H. et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 17591-6.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
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