Product Pathways - Autophagy Signaling
LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb #12741
|12741S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|12741P||40 µl (4 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|12741||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat||Endogenous||14, 16||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Monkey, Xenopus, Bovine, Dog, Pig.
* Product-specific protocol.
Specificity / Sensitivity
LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total LC3A and LC3B proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Leu44 of human LC3B protein (conserved in LC3A).
Western blot analysis of extracts from RD cells, untreated (-) or Torin 1-treated (250 nM, 4 hr; +), using LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa, NIH/3T3, and KNRK cells, untreated (-) or chloroquine-treated (50 μM, overnight; +), using LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded mouse prostate using LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded NIH/3T3 cell pellets, control (left) or chloroquine-treated (right), using LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb in the presence of control peptide (left) or antigen-specific peptide (right).
Flow cytometric analysis of HeLa cells, untreated (blue) or treated with chloroquine (50 µM, 16 hr) (green), using LC3A/B (D3U4C) Rabbit mAb. Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #4414 was used as a secondary antibody.
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa (upper) and C2C12 (lower) cells, chloroquine-treated (50 μM, overnight; left), nutrient-starved with EBSS (3 hr, middle) or untreated (right) using LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb (green) and β-Actin (13E5) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate) #8046 (red). Blue pseudocolor= DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).
Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but it has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, and cancer (3). Autophagy marker Light Chain 3 (LC3) was originally identified as a subunit of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B (termed MAP1LC3) (4) and subsequently found to contain similarity to the yeast protein Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 critical for autophagy (5). Three human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy (6-9). Cleavage of LC3 at the carboxy terminus immediately following synthesis yields the cytosolic LC3-I form. During autophagy, LC3-I is converted to LC3-II through lipidation by a ubiquitin-like system involving Atg7 and Atg3 that allows for LC3 to become associated with autophagic vesicles (6-10). The presence of LC3 in autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3 to the lower migrating form, LC3-II, have been used as indicators of autophagy (11).
- Reggiori, F. and Klionsky, D.J. (2002) Eukaryot. Cell 1, 11-21.
- Codogno, P. and Meijer, A.J. (2005) Cell Death Differ. 12 Suppl 2, 1509-18.
- Levine, B. and Yuan, J. (2005) J. Clin. Invest. 115, 2679-88.
- Mann, S.S. and Hammarback, J.A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11492-97.
- Lang, T. et al. (1998) EMBO J. 17, 3597-607.
- Kabeya, Y. et al. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 5720-28.
- He, H. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 29278-87.
- Tanida, I. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 47704-10.
- Wu, J. et al. (2006) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 339, 437-42.
- Ichimura, Y. et al. (2000) Nature 408, 488-92.
- Kabeya, Y. et al. (2004) J. Cell Sci. 117, 2805-12.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
XP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
DRAQ5® is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.