Product Pathways - Growth Factors/Cytokines
TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #12771
|12771S||100 µl (50 tests)||---||In Stock||---|
|12771||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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Applications Key: IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry
Specificity / Sensitivity
TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total TNF-α protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant human TNF-α protein.
Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, untreated (left) or treated with TPA #4174 (40 nM, 4 hr), Ionomycin #9995 (2 μM, 4 hr) and Brefeldin A #9972 (1 μg/ml, last 3 hr of treatment) (right), using a CD3 antibody and TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate)
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of THP-1 cells, treated with TPA #4174 (80 nM, 16 hr) (top) or treated with TPA followed by LPS (1 μg/ml, 1 hr) (bottom), using TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) (IF/Flow Preferred) (pseudocolor blue). Actin filaments were labeled with Alexa Fluor® 488 phalloidin (Green). Red = Propidium Iodide #4087 (PI)/RNase Staining Solution. Panel shows red/green only (top and bottom left), pseudocolor blue only (top and bottom middle), or merged RGB (top and bottom right).
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TNF-α (D1G2) Rabbit mAb (IF/Flow Preferred) #8184
TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
The Alexa Fluor® dye antibody conjugates in this product are sold under license from Molecular Probes, Inc., for research use only, except for use in combination with DNA microarrays. The Alexa Fluor® dyes (except for Alexa Fluor® 430 dye) are covered by pending and issued patents. Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.