Product Pathways - Ca / cAMP / Lipid Signaling
S100A4 (D9F9D) Rabbit mAb #13018
|13018S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|13018||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse||Endogenous||12||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)
Specificity / Sensitivity
S100A4 (D9F9D) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total S100A4 protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ala54 of human S100A4 protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from A172 and HeLa cells using S100A4 (D9F9D) Rabbit mAb.
Immunoprecipitation of S100A4 from A172 cell extracts using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (lane 2) or S100A4 (D9F9D) Rabbit mAb (lane 3). Lane 1 is 10% input. Western blot analysis was performed using S100A4 (D9F9D) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human colon using S100A4 (D9F9D) Rabbit mAb in the presence of control peptide (left) or antigen-specific peptide (right).
Despite their relatively small size (8-12 kDa) and uncomplicated architecture, S100 proteins regulate a variety of cellular processes such as cell growth and motility, cell cycle progression, transcription, and differentiation. To date, 25 members have been identified, including S100A1-S100A18, trichohyalin, filaggrin, repetin, S100P, and S100Z, making it the largest group in the EF-hand, calcium-binding protein family. Interestingly, 14 S100 genes are clustered on human chromosome 1q21, a region of genomic instability. Research studies have demonstrated that significant correlation exists between aberrant S100 protein expression and cancer progression. S100 proteins primarily mediate immune responses in various tissue types but are also involved in neuronal development (1-4).
Each S100 monomer bears two EF-hand motifs and can bind up to two molecules of calcium (or other divalent cation in some instances). Structural evidence shows that S100 proteins form antiparallel homo- or heterodimers that coordinate binding partner proximity in a calcium-dependent (and sometimes calcium-independent) manner. Although structurally and functionally similar, individual members show restricted tissue distribution, are localized in specific cellular compartments, and display unique protein binding partners, which suggests that each plays a specific role in various signaling pathways. In addition to an intracellular role, some S100 proteins have been shown to act as receptors for extracellular ligands or are secreted and exhibit cytokine-like activities (1-4).
Research studies have shown that S100A4 is overexpressed in highly metastatic cancers, which makes it useful as a marker of tumor progression (5,6) and may serve as a prognostic factor in several cancer types (7-10). S100A4 exerts its function via direct interaction with a number of proteins including P53, P63, nonmuscle myosin IIA, α6β4 integrin, and liprin b1 (11-15). S100A4 is present in the nucleus, cytoplasm and extracellular space. Intracellular and extracellular S100A4 both promote cell migration via interaction with different proteins. Researchers have recently discovered that S100A4 also functions as a neuroprotectant in the peripheral nervous system (16,17).
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
XP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.