Product Pathways - NF-kB Signaling
TIRAP (D6M9Z) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #13077
|13077S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|13077||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
Already purchased this product? Write a Review.
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation
Specificity / Sensitivity
TIRAP (D6M9Z) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) recognizes endogenous levels of total TIRAP protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Pro17 of mouse TIRAP protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from 293T cells, mock transfected (-) or transfected with a construct expressing Myc/DDK-tagged full-length mouse TIRAP (mTIRAP-Myc/DDK; +), using TIRAP (D6M9Z) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific).
Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, named for the closely related Toll receptor in Drosophila, play a pivotal role in innate immune responses (1-4). TLRs recognize conserved motifs found in various pathogens and mediate defense responses (5-7). Triggering of the TLR pathway leads to the activation of NF-κB and subsequent regulation of immune and inflammatory genes (4). The TLRs and members of the IL-1 receptor family share a conserved stretch of approximately 200 amino acids known as the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (1). Upon activation, TLRs associate with a number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins containing TIR domains, including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88-adaptor-like/TIR-associated protein (MAL/TIRAP), Toll-receptor-associated activator of interferon (TRIF), and Toll-receptor-associated molecule (TRAM) (8-10). This association leads to the recruitment and activation of IRAK1 and IRAK4, which form a complex with TRAF6 to activate TAK1 and IKK (8,11-14). Activation of IKK leads to the degradation of IκB, which normally maintains NF-κB in an inactive state by sequestering it in the cytoplasm.
Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP, MAL) is a cytoplasmic protein containing an amino-terminal PIP2 binding site and a carboxy-terminal TIR domain. This adaptor protein mediates downstream signaling from associated toll-like receptors and is essential for MyD88-dependent TLR2 and TLR4 signaling (9,15-18). TIRAP is recruited to the plasma membrane by its PIP2 binding domain, where it mediates recruitment of MyD88 to initiate TLR signaling (15).
- Akira, S. (2003) J Biol Chem 278, 38105-8.
- Beutler, B. (2004) Nature 430, 257-63.
- Dunne, A. and O'Neill, L.A. (2003) Sci STKE 2003, re3.
- Medzhitov, R. et al. (1997) Nature 388, 394-7.
- Schwandner, R. et al. (1999) J Biol Chem 274, 17406-9.
- Takeuchi, O. et al. (1999) Immunity 11, 443-51.
- Alexopoulou, L. et al. (2001) Nature 413, 732-8.
- Zhang, F.X. et al. (1999) J Biol Chem 274, 7611-4.
- Horng, T. et al. (2001) Nat Immunol 2, 835-41.
- Oshiumi, H. et al. (2003) Nat Immunol 4, 161-7.
- Muzio, M. et al. (1997) Science 278, 1612-5.
- Wesche, H. et al. (1997) Immunity 7, 837-47.
- Suzuki, N. et al. (2002) Nature 416, 750-6.
- Irie, T. et al. (2000) FEBS Lett 467, 160-4.
- Kagan, J.C. and Medzhitov, R. (2006) Cell 125, 943-55.
- Fitzgerald, K.A. et al. (2001) Nature 413, 78-83.
- Yamamoto, M. et al. (2002) Nature 420, 324-9.
- Horng, T. et al. (2002) Nature 420, 329-33.
Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Tween® is a registered trademark of ICI Americas, Inc.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.