Product Pathways - Nuclear Receptor Signaling
Estrogen Receptor α (D6R2W) Rabbit mAb #13258
|13258S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|13258||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), ChIP=Chromatin IP
Specificity / Sensitivity
Estrogen Receptor α (D6R2W) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total estrogen receptor α protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant protein specific to the amino terminus of human estrogen receptor α protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Estrogen Receptor α (D6R2W) Rabbit mAb (upper) and β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of MCF7 (ERα positive, left) and SK-BR-3 (ERα negative, right) cells using Estrogen Receptor α (D6R2W) Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DyLight™ 554 Phalloidin #13054 (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).
Chromatin immunoprecipitations were performed with cross-linked chromatin from 4 x 106 MCF7 cells grown in phenol red free medium and 5% charcoal stripped FBS for 4 days, then treated with β-estradiol (10 nM) for 45 minutes and either 10 μl of Estrogen Receptor α (D6R2W) Rabbit mAb or 2 μl of Normal Rabbit IgG #2729 using SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kit (Magnetic Beads) #9003. The enriched DNA was quantified by real-time PCR using SimpleChIP® Human ESR1 Promoter Primers #9673, SimpleChIP® Human pS2 Promoter Primers #9702, and SimpleChIP® Human α Satellite Repeat Primers #4486. The amount of immunoprecipitated DNA in each sample is represented as signal relative to the total amount of input chromatin, which is equivalent to one.
Estrogen receptor α (ERα), a member of the steroid receptor superfamily, contains highly conserved DNA binding and ligand binding domains (1). Through its estrogen-independent and estrogen-dependent activation domains (AF-1 and AF-2, respectively), ERα regulates transcription by recruiting coactivator proteins and interacting with general transcriptional machinery (2). Phosphorylation at multiple sites provides an important mechanism to regulate ERα activity (3-5). Ser104, 106, 118, and 167 are located in the amino-terminal transcription activation function domain AF-1, and phosphorylation of these serine residues plays an important role in regulating ERα activity. Ser118 may be the substrate of the transcription regulatory kinase CDK7 (5). Ser167 may be phosphorylated by p90RSK and Akt (4,6). According to the research literature, phosphorylation at Ser167 may confer tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer patients (4).
- Mangelsdorf, D.J. et al. (1995) Cell 83, 835-9.
- Glass, C.K. and Rosenfeld, M.G. (2000) Genes Dev 14, 121-41.
- Chen, D. et al. (1999) Mol Cell Biol 19, 1002-15.
- Campbell, R.A. et al. (2001) J Biol Chem 276, 9817-24.
- Chen, D. et al. (2000) Mol Cell 6, 127-37.
- Joel, P.B. et al. (1998) Mol Cell Biol 18, 1978-84.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
DRAQ5® is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
Tween® is a registered trademark of ICI Americas, Inc.
SimpleChIP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
DyLight™ is a trademark of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.