Product Pathways - Apoptosis
PAR-4 Antibody #2328
|W IP IF-IC F||H M R Mk||Endogenous||41||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
PAR-4 Antibody detects endogenous levels of PAR-4 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Gly210 of human PAR-4. Antibodies were purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from SW620, ACHN, LNCaP and A20 cell lines, using PAR-4 Antibody.
Flow cytometric analysis of HeLa cells, using PAR-4 Antibody (blue) compared to a nonspecific negative control antibody (red).
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HT-1080 cells using PAR-4 Antibody (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).
PAR-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) was identified as a protein that is upregulated in prostate tumor cells undergoing apoptosis (1). Additionally, in parallel studies PAR-4 was found in the yeast two-hybrid system to bind to the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 and may modulate WT1-medated transcriptional activation (2). PAR-4 contains a leucine zipper domain and a death domain and has been implicated as an effector of apoptosis during tumorigenesis as well as in neurodegenerative disorders (3,4). PAR-4 is widely expressed in normal tissues but can be downregulated in some tumor types. The mechanism of PAR-4 mediated apoptosis regulation appears to be complex and dependent on the cellular context. Studies have indicated roles for PAR-4 in activation of the Fas-FADD-caspase-8 pathway as well as inhibition of the NF-κB pro-survival pathway (5-7). Its activity is likely to depend on the cellular context and post-translational modifications. For instance, phosphorylation of PAR-4 by Akt prevents its nuclear translocation thereby promoting cell surivival (8). In contrast, phoshorylation of rat PAR-4 at T155 by PKA appears to positively regulate its apoptotic activity (9).
- Sells, S.F. et al. (1997) Mol. Cell Biol. 17, 3823-3832.
- Johnstone, R.W. et al. (1996) Mol. Cell Biol. 16, 6945-6956.
- Guo, Q. et al. (1998) Nat. Med. 4, 957-962.
- El-Guendy, N. and Rangnekar, V.M. (2003) Exp. Cell Res. 283, 51-66.
- Chakraborty, M. et al. (2001) Cancer Res. 61, 7255-7263.
- Díaz-Meco, M.T. et al. (1996) Cell 86, 777-786.
- Diaz-Meco, M.T. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 19606-79612.
- Goswami, A. et al. (2005) Mol. Cell 20, 33-44.
- Gurumurthy, S. et al. (2005) Mol. Cell Biol. 25, 1146-1161.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.