Product Pathways - Apoptosis
PAR-4 Antibody #2328
|2328S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|2328||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey||Endogenous||41||Rabbit|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry
Specificity / Sensitivity
PAR-4 Antibody detects endogenous levels of PAR-4 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Gly210 of human PAR-4. Antibodies were purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from SW620, ACHN, LNCaP and A20 cell lines, using PAR-4 Antibody.
Flow cytometric analysis of HeLa cells, using PAR-4 Antibody (blue) compared to a nonspecific negative control antibody (red).
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HT-1080 cells using PAR-4 Antibody (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).
PAR-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) was identified as a protein that is upregulated in prostate tumor cells undergoing apoptosis (1). Additionally, in parallel studies PAR-4 was found in the yeast two-hybrid system to bind to the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 and may modulate WT1-medated transcriptional activation (2). PAR-4 contains a leucine zipper domain and a death domain and has been implicated as an effector of apoptosis during tumorigenesis as well as in neurodegenerative disorders (3,4). PAR-4 is widely expressed in normal tissues but can be downregulated in some tumor types. The mechanism of PAR-4 mediated apoptosis regulation appears to be complex and dependent on the cellular context. Studies have indicated roles for PAR-4 in activation of the Fas-FADD-caspase-8 pathway as well as inhibition of the NF-κB pro-survival pathway (5-7). Its activity is likely to depend on the cellular context and post-translational modifications. For instance, phosphorylation of PAR-4 by Akt prevents its nuclear translocation thereby promoting cell surivival (8). In contrast, phoshorylation of rat PAR-4 at T155 by PKA appears to positively regulate its apoptotic activity (9).
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
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