Product Pathways - Apoptosis
Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody #2329
|2329S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|2329||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Mouse, Rat, Monkey.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody detects endogenous levels of PAR-4 when phosphorylated at Thr163 (Thr163 corresponds to human sequence and is equivalent to Thr155 in rat and Thr156 in mouse).
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr163 of human PAR-4 (Thr155 in rat and Thr156 in mouse). Antibodies were purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells, untreated or forskolin-treated (30 μM), using Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody (upper) or total PAR-4 Antibody #2328 (lower).
PAR-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) was identified as a protein that is upregulated in prostate tumor cells undergoing apoptosis (1). Additionally, in parallel studies PAR-4 was found in the yeast two-hybrid system to bind to the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 and may modulate WT1-medated transcriptional activation (2). PAR-4 contains a leucine zipper domain and a death domain and has been implicated as an effector of apoptosis during tumorigenesis as well as in neurodegenerative disorders (3,4). PAR-4 is widely expressed in normal tissues but can be downregulated in some tumor types. The mechanism of PAR-4 mediated apoptosis regulation appears to be complex and dependent on the cellular context. Studies have indicated roles for PAR-4 in activation of the Fas-FADD-caspase-8 pathway as well as inhibition of the NF-κB pro-survival pathway (5-7). Its activity is likely to depend on the cellular context and post-translational modifications. For instance, phosphorylation of PAR-4 by Akt prevents its nuclear translocation thereby promoting cell surivival (8). In contrast, phoshorylation of rat PAR-4 at T155 by PKA appears to positively regulate its apoptotic activity (9).
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