Product Pathways - Metabolism
Torc1 Antibody #2501
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Torc1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Torc1 protein and will not cross-react with Torc2 or Torc3 proteins.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence of humanTorc1 (around G296). Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Glucose homeostasis is regulated by hormones and cellular energy status. Elevations of blood glucose during feeding stimulate insulin release from pancreatic β-cells through a glucose sensing pathway. Feeding also stimulates release of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which further induces insulin release, inhibits glucagon release and promotes β-cell viability. CREB-dependent transcription likely plays a role in both glucose sensing and GLP-1 signaling (1). The protein Torc2 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 2) functions as a CREB co-activator (2,3) and is implicated in mediating the effects of these two pathways (4). In quiescent cells, Torc2 is phosphorylated at Ser171 and becomes sequestered in the cytoplasm via an interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Glucose and gut hormones lead to the dephosphorylation of Torc2 and its dissociation from 14-3-3 proteins. Dephosphorylated Torc2 enters the nucleus to promote CREB-dependent transcription. Torc2 plays a key role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic gene transcription in response to hormonal and energy signals during fasting (5). Torc2-related proteins Torc1 and Torc3 also act as CREB co-activators (2,3). Torc1, Torc2 and Torc3 associate with the HTLV Tax protein to promote Tax-dependent transcription of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (6,7). Torc1 is highly phosphorylated at Ser151 in mouse hypothalamic cells under basal conditions (8). When these cells are exposed to cAMP or a calcium activator, Torc1 is dephosphorylated and translocates into the nucleus (8). Torc1 is essential for energy balance and fertility (8).
- Hinke, S.A. et al. (2004) J. Physiol. 558, 369-380.
- Conkright, M.D. et al. (2003) Mol. Cell 12, 413-423.
- Iourgenko, V. et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12147-12152.
- Screaton, R.A. et al. (2004) Cell 119, 61-74.
- Koo, S.H. et al. (2005) Nature 437, 1109-1111.
- Koga, H. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 52978-52983.
- Siu, Y.T. et al. (2006) J. Virol. 80, 7052-7059.
- Altarejos, J.Y. et al. (2008) Nat Med 14, 1112-7.
Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
- 2587 Torc1 (C71D11) Rabbit mAb
- 3826 Torc2 Antibody
- 2768 Torc3 Antibody
- 9191 Phospho-CREB (Ser133) Antibody
- 9198 Phospho-CREB (Ser133) (87G3) Rabbit mAb
- 9196 Phospho-CREB (Ser133) (1B6) Mouse mAb
- 9197 CREB (48H2) Rabbit mAb
- 9104 CREB (86B10) Mouse mAb
- 9193 CREB Control Cell Extracts
- 1090 Phospho-CREB (Ser133) Blocking Peptide
- 9190 PhosphoPlus® CREB (Ser133) Antibody Kit
- 7071 Phototope®-HRP Western Blot Detection System, Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody
- 7074 Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody
- 7720 Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (Premixed Format)
- 7727 Biotinylated Protein Ladder Detection Pack
- 7003 20X LumiGLO® Reagent and 20X Peroxide
- 2720 Torc3 (C35G4) Rabbit mAb
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.