Product Pathways - Development
TCF4 (C48H11) Rabbit mAb #2569
|W IP ChIP||H (M) (C)||Endogenous||58, 79||Rabbit IgG|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse C=Chicken
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
TCF4 (C48H11) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of total TCF4 protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Leu330 of human TCF4.
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell types using TCF4 (C48H11) Rabbit mAb.
Chromatin immunoprecipitations were performed with cross-linked chromatin from 4 x 106 HCT 116 cells and either 10 μl of TCF4 (C48H11) Rabbit mAb or 2 μl of Normal Rabbit IgG #2729 using SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kit (Magnetic Beads) #9003. The enriched DNA was quantified by real-time PCR using SimpleChIP® Human CaMK2D Intron 3 Primers #5111, human c-Myc promoter primers, and SimpleChIP® Human α Satellite Repeat Primers #4486. The amount of immunoprecipitated DNA in each sample is represented as signal relative to the total amount of input chromatin, which is equivalent to one.
LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1), TCF3, and TCF4 (1). LEF1 and TCF1 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).
TCF4, also known as TCF7L2, is expressed widely during development. Gene targeting studies indicate that TCF4 is required to maintain the crypt stem cells of the small intestine (6,7). TCF4 has several splicing isoforms that are expressed differentially in tissues and during cancer progression (8,9). Studies also indicate that a variant of the TCF4 gene confers an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (10).
- Waterman, M.L. (2004) Cancer Metastasis Rev. 23, 41-52.
- Schilham, M.W. and Clevers, H. (1998) Semin. Immunol. 10, 127-132.
- Brantjes, H. et al. (2002) Biol. Chem. 383, 255-261.
- Reya, T. and Clevers, H. (2005) Nature 434, 843-850.
- Logan, C.Y. and Nusse, R. (2004) Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 20, 781-810.
- Cho, E.A. and Dressler, G.R. (1998) Mech. Dev. 77, 9-18.
- Korinek, V. et al. (1998) Nat. Genet. 19, 379-383.
- Howng, S.L. et al. (2004) Int. J. Oncol. 25, 1685-1692.
- Shiina, H. et al. (2003) Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 2121-2132.
- Grant, S.F. et al. (2006) Nat. Genet. 38, 320-323.
- Frietze, S. et al. (2012) Genome Biol 13, R52. Applications: ChIP
- Koga, H. et al. (2012) PLoS One 7, e39981. Applications: Western Blotting
- Norton, L. et al. (2011) Diabetologia 54, 3132-42. Applications: ChIP Western Blotting
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.