Product Pathways - Metabolism
Torc3 Antibody #2768
|2768S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|2768||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting
Specificity / Sensitivity
Torc3 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Torc3 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence of human
Torc3. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Glucose homeostasis is regulated by hormones and cellular energy status. Elevations of blood glucose during feeding stimulate insulin release from pancreatic β-cells through a glucose sensing pathway. Feeding also stimulates release of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which further induces insulin release, inhibits glucagon release and promotes β-cell viability. CREB-dependent transcription likely plays a role in both glucose sensing and GLP-1 signaling (1). The protein CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2)/TORC2 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 2) functions as a CREB co-activator (2,3) and is implicated in mediating the effects of these two pathways (4). In quiescent cells, CRTC2/TORC2 is phosphorylated at Ser171 and becomes sequestered in the cytoplasm via an interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Glucose and gut hormones lead to the dephosphorylation of CRTC2/TORC2 and its dissociation from 14-3-3 proteins. Dephosphorylated CRTC2/TORC2 enters the nucleus to promote CREB-dependent transcription. CRTC2/TORC2 plays a key role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic gene transcription in response to hormonal and energy signals during fasting (5). CRTC2/TORC2-related proteins CRTC1/TORC1 and CRTC3/TORC3 also act as CREB co-activators (2,3). CRTC1/TORC1, CRTC2/TORC2 and CRTC3/TORC3 associate with the HTLV Tax protein to promote Tax-dependent transcription of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (6,7). CRTC1/TORC1 is highly phosphorylated at Ser151 in mouse hypothalamic cells under basal conditions (8). When these cells are exposed to cAMP or a calcium activator, CRTC1/TORC1 is dephosphorylated and translocates into the nucleus (8). CRTC1/TORC1 is essential for energy balance and fertility (8).
- Hinke, S.A. et al. (2004) J Physiol 558, 369-80.
- Conkright, M.D. et al. (2003) Mol Cell 12, 413-23.
- Iourgenko, V. et al. (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 12147-52.
- Screaton, R.A. et al. (2004) Cell 119, 61-74.
- Koo, S.H. et al. (2005) Nature 437, 1109-11.
- Koga, H. et al. (2004) J Biol Chem 279, 52978-83.
- Siu, Y.T. et al. (2006) J Virol 80, 7052-9.
- Altarejos, J.Y. et al. (2008) Nat Med 14, 1112-7.
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