Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) Antibody #3101
|W||H M R (C) (X) (Z)||Endogenous||60||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat C=Chicken X=Xenopus Z=Zebrafish
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) Antibody detects endogenous levels of Smad2 only when dually phosphorylated at Ser465 and Ser467, and may detect phosphorylated Smad3 at its equivalent site. This antibody does not cross-react with other Smad-related proteins.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser465/467 of human Smad2. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).
Following stimulation by TGF-beta, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated at their carboxyl termini by the receptor kinase (serines 465 and 467 on Smad2; serines 423 and 425 on Smad3) by TbetaR-I (9-11). Following phosphorylation, Smad2 and Smad3 form a heteromeric complex with the co-smad family member Smad4. These complexes are translocated to the nucleus where they bind DNA and regulate gene transcription.
- Heldin, C.H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465-471.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10, 188-194.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 753-791.
- Whitman, M. (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 2445-2462.
- Wu, G. et al. (2000) Science 287, 92-97.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (2002) Science 296, 1646-1647.
- Moustakas, A. et al. (2001) J. Cell Sci. 114, 4359-4369.
- Abdollah, S. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27678-27685.
- Souchelnytskyi, S. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 28107-28115.
- Liu, X. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 10669-10674.
- Watabe, T. et al. (2003) TGF-beta receptor kinase inhibitor enhances growth and integrity of embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells. J. Cell Biol. 163, 1303-1311. Applications: Western Blotting
- Stove, C. et al. (2004) Melanoma cells secrete follistatin, an antagonist of activin-mediated growth inhibition. Oncogene 23, 5330-5339. Applications: Western Blotting
- Tomita, M. et al. (2004) The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-bZIP protein represses transforming growth factor beta signaling through interaction with CREB-binding protein. Oncogene 23, 8272-8281. Applications: Western Blotting
- Kondo, M. et al. (2004) Cell Death Differ 11, 1092-101. Applications: Western Blotting
- Nagata, M. et al. (2006) Genes Cells 11, 1267-80. Applications: Western Blotting
- Ehata, S. et al. (2007) Cancer Res 67, 9694-703. Applications: Western Blotting
- Louafi, F. et al. (2010) J Biol Chem 285, 41328-36. Applications: Western Blotting
- Kroening, S. et al. (2010) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 298, F796-806. Applications: Western Blotting
Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
- 9511 Phospho-Smad1 (Ser463/465)/ Smad5 (Ser463/465)/ Smad8 (Ser426/428) Antibody
- 7074 Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody
- 7720 Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (Premixed Format)
- 7727 Biotinylated Protein Ladder Detection Pack
- 7003 20X LumiGLO® Reagent and 20X Peroxide
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.