Product Pathways - Translational Control
Hydroxy-HIF-1α (Pro564) (D43B5) XP® Rabbit mAb #3434
|W IP IF-IC||H (M) (R) (Mk) (C) (X) (Z) (Pg)||Endogenous||120||Rabbit IgG|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey C=Chicken X=Xenopus Z=Zebrafish Pg=Pig
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Hydroxy-HIF-1α (Pro564) (D43B5) XP® Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of HIF-1α only when hydroxylated at Pro564. This antibody may cross react with other overexpressed proline hydroxylated proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic hydroxypeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Pro564 of human HIF-1α.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells, treated with either 10 μM of MG132 (to accumulate hydroxylated HIF-1α) or 10 µM MG132 and 1 mM DMOG (to accumulate nonhyroxylated HIF-1α), using Hydroxy-HIF-1α (Pro564) (D43B5) XP® Rabbit mAb (upper) or total HIF-1α Antibody #3716 (lower).
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that plays a critical role in the cellular response to hypoxia (1). The HIF1 complex consists of two subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-1β, which are basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS (Per, ARNT, Sim) family (2). HIF1 regulates the transcription of a broad range of genes that facilitate responses to the hypoxic environment, including genes regulating angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cell cycle, metabolism and apoptosis. The widely expressed HIF-1α is typically degraded rapidly in normoxic cells by the ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1α is proline hydroxylated leading to a conformational change that promotes binding to the von Hippel Lindau protein (VLH) E3 ligase complex; ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation follows (3,4). Both hypoxic conditions and chemical hydroxylase inhibitors (such as desferrioxamine and cobalt) inhibit HIF-1α degradation and lead to its stabilization. In addition, HIF-1α can be induced in an oxygen-independent manner by various cytokines through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway (5-7).HIF-1β is also known as AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) due to its ability to partner with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to form a heterodimeric transcription factor complex (8). Together with AhR, HIF-1β plays an important role in xenobiotics metabolism (8). In addition, a chromosomal translocation leading to a TEL-ARNT fusion protein is associated with acute myeloblastic leukemia (9). Studies also found that ARNT/HIF-1β expression levels decrease significantly in pancreatic islets from patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that HIF-1β plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell function (10).
Two critical prolines in HIF-1α (Pro564 and Pro402) can be hydroxylated by proline hydroxylase under normoxia conditions. Hydroxylation of HIF-1α leads to its binding to VHL and ubiquitin mediated degradation (3,11,12).
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- Tian, Y.M. et al. (2011) J Biol Chem 286, 13041-51. Applications: Western Blotting
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.