Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
TGF-β (56E4) Rabbit mAb #3709
|W||H (M) (R) (Pg)||Endogenous||12, 45-60||Rabbit IgG|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Pg=Pig
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
TGF-β Antibody detects recombinant TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 proteins. The antibody also detects endogenous levels of the TGF-β precursor proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region in the carboxy terminus of TGF-β1 protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts of HeLa cells, mock transfected or transfected with TGF-β1 precursor, using TGF-β (56E4) Rabbit mAb.
Western blot analysis of extracts from K-562, Saos-2 and 786-0 cells using TGF-β (56E4) Rabbit mAb.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).
Three isoforms of TGF-β, designated TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, are encoded by distinct genes and are expressed in a tissue specific manner (10). Each isoform is synthesized as a larger precursor protein containing a propeptide region that is removed prior to secretion. Mature TGF-β contains two polypeptides linked by disulfide bonds to form a protein of approximately 25 kDa.
- Massague, J. et al. (2000) Cell 103, 295-309.
- Caestecker, M.P. et al. (2000) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92, 1388-1402.
- Derynck, R. et al. (2001) Nature Genet. 29, 117-129.
- Miyazono, K. et al. (2000) Adv. Immunol. 75, 115-157.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1333, F105-150.
- López-Casillas, F. et al. (1991) Cell 67, 785-795.
- Wang, X.F. et al. (1991) Cell 67, 797-805.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. et al. (2000) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 169-178.
- Kingsley, D.M. (1994) Genes Dev. 8, 133-46.
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Rabbit Monoclonals Produced Using Epitomics® Technology, U.S. Patent No. 5,675,063.
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.