Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
TGF-β Antibody #3711
|3711S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|3711||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat||Endogenous||12, 25, 45 to 65||Rabbit|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation
Specificity / Sensitivity
TGF-beta Antibody detects recombinant TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3. The antibody also detects endogenous levels of the TGF-beta precursor proteins.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with synthetic peptide corresponding to a region in the carboxy terminus of TGF-beta1. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of recombinant human TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3, using TGF-beta Antibody.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).
There are three isoforms of TGF-beta designated TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3, which are encoded by distinct genes and are expressed in a tissue specific manner (10). Each of the isoforms are synthesized as larger precursor proteins containing a propeptide region which gets cleaved prior to secretion from the cell. Mature TGF-beta contains two polypeptides linked linked by disulfide bonds forming a protein of about 25 kDa.
- Massague, J. et al. (2000) Cell 103, 295-309.
- Caestecker, M.P. et al. (2000) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92, 1388-1402.
- Derynck, R. et al. (2001) Nature Genet. 29, 117-129.
- Miyazono, K. et al. (2000) Adv. Immunol. 75, 115-157.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1333, F105-150.
- López-Casillas, F. et al. (1991) Cell 67, 785-795.
- Wang, X.F. et al. (1991) Cell 67, 797-805.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. et al. (2000) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 169-178.
- Kingsley, D. M. et al. (1994) Genes Dev. 8, 133-146.
- Nishida, M. et al. (2008) EMBO J 27, 3104-15. Applications: Western Blotting.
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