Product Pathways - Ca / cAMP / Lipid Signaling
GNB3 Antibody #3719
|W||H M R||Endogenous||31||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
GNB3 Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total GNB3 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ile123 of human GNB3 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, G proteins, transduce ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) into intracellular responses (1). G proteins are comprised of 3 subunits, alpha (Gα), beta (Gβ), and gamma (Gγ). Upon activation of GPCRs, the receptor promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP of Gα, changing the confirmation of the switch regions within Gα. The receptor bound heterotimeric G protein (inactive) is then released, and dissociates into the GTP-bound Gα (active) monomer and the Gβ/Gγ heterodimer (1,2). Gα activates adenylyl cyclase, which converts ATP to the second messenger cAMP. Gα also activates phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC), which catalyzes hydrolysis of the phospholipid of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2), releasing the second messengers IP3 and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 activates IP3 receptors to release Ca2+ from the ER. DAG is an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), which in turn activates the Erk1/2 pathway (1,3). The primary function of the Gβ/Gγ heterodimer is to inhibit Gα, although it may also activate second messengers (e.g. PLC pathway) or gate ion channels (e.g. GIRK) (1). Guanine nucleotide-binding protein b3 (GNB3) is an isoform of the b subunit. Research studies have shown that a polymorphism in the GNB3 gene, C825T, is associated with hypertension, obesity, and depression (4).
- Hamm, H.E. (1998) J Biol Chem 273, 669-72.
- Ritchey, E.R. et al. (2010) Neuroscience 169, 1376-91.
- Hisatsune, C. et al. (2005) J Biol Chem 280, 11723-30.
- Rosskopf, D. et al. (2000) Hypertension 36, 33-41.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.