Product Pathways - Chromatin Regulation / Epigenetics
Phospho-HDAC3 (Ser424) Antibody #3815
|W IP IHC-P IF-IC||H M R (Mk) (C) (X) (Hr)||Endogenous||49||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey C=Chicken X=Xenopus Hr=Horse
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-HDAC3 (Ser424) Antibody detects endogenous levels of HDAC3 protein only when phosphorylated on Ser424. The antibody does not cross-react with other HDAC proteins.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to Ser424 of human HDAC3 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa, C6 and C2C12 cells, untreated or λ-phosphatase-treated, using Phospho-HDAC3 (Ser424) Antibody (upper) or HDAC3 Antibody #2632 (lower).
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using Phospho-HDAC3 (Ser424) Antibody.
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells, untreated (left) or λ-phosphatase-treated (right), using Phospho-HDAC3 (Ser424) Antibody (green). Actin filaments were labeled using DY-554 phalloidin (red).
Acetylation of the histone tail causes chromatin to adopt an "open" conformation, allowing increased accessibility of transcription factors to DNA. The identification of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and their large multiprotein complexes has yielded important insights into how these enzymes regulate transcription (1,2). HAT complexes interact with sequence-specific activator proteins to target specific genes. In addition to histones, HATs can acetylate nonhistone proteins, suggesting multiple roles for these enzymes (3). In contrast, histone deacetylation promotes a "closed" chromatin conformation and typically leads to repression of gene activity (4). Mammalian histone deacetylases can be divided into three classes on the basis of their similarity to various yeast deacetylases (5). Class I proteins (HDACs 1, 2, 3, and 8) are related to the yeast Rpd3-like proteins, those in class II (HDACs 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10) are related to yeast Hda1-like proteins, and class III proteins are related to the yeast protein Sir2. Inhibitors of HDAC activity are now being explored as potential therapeutic cancer agents (6,7).
HDAC3 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that deacetylates both histone (H2A, H3, H4) and non-histone substrates (RelA, SRY, p53, MEF2, PCAF and p300/CBP) (8). HDAC3 deacetylase activity is stimulated by interactions with the N-CoR and SMRT co-repressor proteins. Together, these three proteins form a functional complex that represses transcription associated with nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors, including Rev-Erb, COUP-TF, DAX1, MAD and Pit-1 (8,9). Phosphorylation of HDAC3 on Ser424 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) also increases HDAC3 deacetylase activity (9). Subsequently, de-phosphorylation by protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) decreases HDAC3 activity (9).
- Marmorstein, R. (2001) Cell Mol Life Sci 58, 693-703.
- Gregory, P.D. et al. (2001) Exp Cell Res 265, 195-202.
- Liu, Y. et al. (2000) Mol Cell Biol 20, 5540-53.
- Cress, W.D. and Seto, E. (2000) J Cell Physiol 184, 1-16.
- Gray, S.G. and Ekström, T.J. (2001) Exp Cell Res 262, 75-83.
- Thiagalingam, S. et al. (2003) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 983, 84-100.
- Vigushin, D.M. and Coombes, R.C. (2004) Curr. Cancer Drug Targets 4, 205-218.
- Karagianni, P. and Wong, J. (2007) Oncogene 26, 5439-5449.
- Zhang, X. et al. (2005) Genes Dev. 19, 827-839.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.