Product Pathways - Metabolism
PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb #4053
|4053S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4053P||40 µl (4 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4053||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey||Endogenous||60||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)
Specificity / Sensitivity
PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of total PKM2 protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence of human PKM2.
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines and mouse skeletal muscle using PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb (upper) or GAPDH (14C10) Rabbit mAb #2118.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lymphoma using PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human skeletal muscle using PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb. Note the lack of staining in the skeletal muscle cells which do not express PKM2 while vessels within the tissue stain positively.
Pyruvate kinase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyses the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. In mammals, the M1 isoform (PKM1) is expressed in most adult tissues (1). The M2 isoform (PKM2) is an alternatively spliced variant of M1 that is expressed during embryonic development (1). Research studies found that cancer cells exclusively express PKM2 (1-3). PKM2 is shown to be essential for aerobic glycolysis in tumors, known as the Warburg effect (1). When cancer cells switch from the M2 isoform to the M1 isoform, aerobic glycolysis is reduced and oxidative phosphorylation is increased (1). These cells also show decreased tumorigenicity in mouse xenografts (1). Recent studies showed that PKM2 is not essential for all tumor cells (4). In the tumor model studied, PKM2 was found to be active in the non-proliferative tumor cell population and inactive in the proliferative tumor cell population (4).
- Israelsen, W.J. et al. (2013) Cell 155, 397-409. Applications: Western Blotting, IHC-P (paraffin).
- Anastasiou, D. et al. (2011) Science 334, 1278-83. Applications: Western Blotting.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
XP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
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Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.