Product Pathways - DNA Damage
Phospho-TLK1 (Ser695) Antibody #4121
|W IP IHC-P||H M R||Endogenous||86||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-TLK1 (Ser695) Antibody detects endogenous levels of TLK1 only when phosphorylated at serine 695.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser695 of human TLK1. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells, untreated or treated overnight with hydroxyurea or aphidicolin, using Phospho-TLK1 (Ser695) Antibody (upper), or TLK1 Antibody #4125 (lower).
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma, untreated (left) or lambda phosphatase-treated (right), using Phospho-TLK1 (Ser695) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human renal cell carcinoma, using Phospho-TLK1 (Ser695) Antibody in the presence of control peptide (left) or antigen-specific peptide (right).
Tousled-like kinases (TLK1 and TLK2) are nuclear serine/threonine kinases named for their homology to the Tousled gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, essential for flower development (1). The kinase activities of the TLKs are cell cycle regulated, with maximal activity during S phase (1). TLK appears to play a role in chromatin assembly and DNA damage checkpoint regulation (1,2). In C. elegans, TLK1 is essential for appropriate transcription during embryonic development (3). Substrates for TLK include the human chromatin assembly factor Asf, which functions in DNA replication- and repair-coupled chromatin assembly (2). DNA damage during S phase, when TLK is maximally active, leads to inhibition of TLK activity (1). This inhibition requires ataxia mutated kinase (ATM) and Chk1 (4,5). ATM and the related kinase ATR are activited by DNA damage during S phase, phosphorylate Chk1/Chk2, and block the transition into mitosis (6). Chk1 phosphorylates TLK1 on Ser695 in vitro and in vivo, leading to inhibition of TLK1 activity (4). This process likely provides a mechanism to slow the chromatin assembly processes controlled by TLK in the event of DNA damage.
- Sillje, H. H. et al. (1999) EMBO J. 18, 5691-5702.
- Sillje, H.H. and Nigg, E.A. (2001) Curr. Biol. 11, 1068-1073.
- Han, Z. et al. (2003) Curr. Biol. 13, 1921-1929.
- Groth, A. et al. (2003) EMBO J. 22, 1676-1687.
- Krause, D. R. et al. (2003) Oncogene 22, 5927-5937.
- Kastan, M.B. and Lim, D.S. (2000) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 179-186.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.