Product Pathways - Metabolism
AMPKβ1/2 (57C12) Rabbit mAb #4150
|4150S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4150P||40 µl (4 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4150||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster, Monkey||Endogenous||30, 38||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry
Specificity / Sensitivity
AMPKbeta1/2 (57C12) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of both total AMPKβ1 and β2 proteins. The antibody does not cross-react with other related proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence surrounding His233 residues of human AMPKβ1.
Western blot analysis of cell lysates from various cell lines using AMPKβ 1/2(57C12) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma, showing cytoplasmic localization using AMPKβ1/2 (57C12) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma, using AMPKβ1/2 (57C12) Rabbit mAb in the presence of control peptide (left) or AMPKβ 1/2 Blocking Peptide #1074 (right).
Flow cytometric analysis of COS cells, using AMPKβ1/2 (57C12) Rabbit mAb (blue) compared to a nonspecific negative control antibody (red).
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is highly conserved from yeast to plants and animals and plays a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis (1). AMPK is a heterotrimeric complex composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits, each of which is encoded by two or three distinct genes (α1, 2; β1, 2; γ1, 2, 3) (2). The kinase is activated by an elevated AMP/ATP ratio due to cellular and environmental stress, such as heat shock, hypoxia, and ischemia (1). The tumor suppressor LKB1, in association with accessory proteins STRAD and MO25, phosphorylates AMPKα at Thr172 in the activation loop, and this phosphorylation is required for AMPK activation (3-5). AMPKα is also phosphorylated at Thr258 and Ser485 (for α1; Ser491 for α2). The upstream kinase and the biological significance of these phosphorylation events have yet to be elucidated (6). The β1 subunit is post-translationally modified by myristoylation and multi-site phosphorylation including Ser24/25, Ser96, Ser101, Ser108, and Ser182 (6,7). Phosphorylation at Ser108 of the β1 subunit seems to be required for the activation of AMPK enzyme, while phosphorylation at Ser24/25 and Ser182 affects AMPK localization (7). Several mutations in AMPKγ subunits have been identified, most of which are located in the putative AMP/ATP binding sites (CBS or Bateman domains). Mutations at these sites lead to reduction of AMPK activity and cause glycogen accumulation in heart or skeletal muscle (1,2). Accumulating evidence indicates that AMPK not only regulates the metabolism of fatty acids and glycogen, but also modulates protein synthesis and cell growth through EF2 and TSC2/mTOR pathways, as well as blood flow via eNOS/nNOS (1).
AMPKbeta1 and AMPKbeta2 share approximately 70% sequence homology. Both isoforms contribute equally to AMPK activity. AMPKβ1 is predominantly expressed in the liver and brain, and shows minimal expression in kidney and skeletal muscle. In comparison, AMPKβ2 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, and is expressed at low levels in kidney, liver, and lung.
- Hardie, D.G. (2004) J Cell Sci 117, 5479-87.
- Carling, D. (2004) Trends Biochem Sci 29, 18-24.
- Hawley, S.A. et al. (1996) J Biol Chem 271, 27879-87.
- Lizcano, J.M. et al. (2004) EMBO J 23, 833-43.
- Shaw, R.J. et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 3329-35.
- Woods, A. et al. (2003) J Biol Chem 278, 28434-42.
- Warden, S.M. et al. (2001) Biochem J 354, 275-83.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
DRAQ5® is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
This antibody is developed, validated, and produced by CST using in part technology under license (granting certain rights including those under U.S. Patents No. 5,675,063 and 7,429,487) from Epitomics, Inc.