Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Gremlin Antibody #4383
|W||M (H) (R)||Transfected Only||21||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Gremlin Antibody detects transfected levels of total gremlin protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide surrounding Val170 of human gremlin. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Gremlin is a secreted antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins that play important roles during development. Gene targeting generates gremlin deficient mice that die shortly after birth due to absent kidneys and defects in lung septation (1-3). Gremlin also plays a role in cardiomyogenesis and angiogenesis (4,5). TGF-β can induce gremlin expression under pathological conditions. Gremlin colocalizes with TGF-β in tubulointerstitial fibrosis associated with chronic allograft nephropathy and is expressed in diabetic nephropathy in vivo (6-8). Gremlin is widely expressed in cancer associated stromal cells and can enhance cancer cell proliferation (9).
- Zúñiga, A. et al. (1999) Nature 401, 598-602.
- Zuniga, A. et al. (2004) Genes Dev 18, 1553-64.
- Michos, O. et al. (2004) Development 131, 3401-10.
- Stabile, H. et al. (2007) Blood 109, 1834-40.
- Kami, D. et al. (2008) PLoS ONE 3, e2407.
- Carvajal, G. et al. (2008) Transplant Proc 40, 734-9.
- McMahon, R. et al. (2000) J Biol Chem 275, 9901-4.
- Dolan, V. et al. (2005) Am J Kidney Dis 45, 1034-9.
- Sneddon, J.B. et al. (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 14842-7.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.