Product Pathways - PI3K / Akt Signaling
Akt (pan) (11E7) Rabbit mAb #4685
|4685S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4685||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey||Endogenous||60||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry
Specificity / Sensitivity
Akt (pan) (11E7) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of total Akt protein. This antibody does not cross-react with other related proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide at the carboxy-terminal sequence of mouse Akt.
Western blot analysis of recombinant Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3 proteins, and extracts from HeLa, C2C12, C6 and COS cells, using Akt (pan) (11E7) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma using Akt (pan) (11E7) Rabbit mAb in the presence of control peptide (left) or Akt (pan) (11E7) Blocking Peptide #1085 (right).
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma, using Akt (pan) (11E7) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human melanoma, using Akt (11E7) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis using Akt (pan) (11E7) Rabbit mAb on SignalSlide(TM) Phospho-Akt (Ser473) IHC Controls #8101 (paraffin-embedded LNCaP cells, untreated (left) or LY294002-treated (right)). Note the lack of phosphorylated Akt-associated stain at the membrane of the LY294002 treated cells.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded HeLa cells untreated (left) or transfected with Akt 1/2/3 Kinases ShortCut® siRNA Mix (New England BioLabs #N2005) (right), using Akt (pan) (11E7) Rabbit mAb (top) or Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) #9661 (bottom). Note the induction of cleaved caspase-3 in Akt deficient cells.
Flow cytometric analysis of untreated Jurkat cells, using Akt (pan) (11E7) Rabbit mAb (blue) compared to a nonspecific negative control antibody (red).
Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).
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- Burgering, B.M. and Coffer, P.J. (1995) Nature 376, 599-602.
- Franke, T.F. et al. (1995) Cell 81, 727-36.
- Alessi, D.R. et al. (1996) EMBO J 15, 6541-51.
- Sarbassov, D.D. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1098-101.
- Jacinto, E. et al. (2006) Cell 127, 125-37.
- Cardone, M.H. et al. (1998) Science 282, 1318-21.
- Brunet, A. et al. (1999) Cell 96, 857-68.
- Zimmermann, S. and Moelling, K. (1999) Science 286, 1741-4.
- Cantley, L.C. and Neel, B.G. (1999) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 4240-5.
- Vlahos, C.J. et al. (1994) J Biol Chem 269, 5241-8.
- Hajduch, E. et al. (2001) FEBS Lett 492, 199-203.
- Cross, D.A. et al. (1995) Nature 378, 785-9.
- Diehl, J.A. et al. (1998) Genes Dev 12, 3499-511.
- Gesbert, F. et al. (2000) J Biol Chem 275, 39223-30.
- Zhou, B.P. et al. (2001) Nat Cell Biol 3, 245-52.
- Navé, B.T. et al. (1999) Biochem J 344 Pt 2, 427-31.
- Inoki, K. et al. (2002) Nat Cell Biol 4, 648-57.
- Manning, B.D. et al. (2002) Mol Cell 10, 151-62.
- Guertin, D.A. et al. (2009) Cancer Cell 15, 148-59. Applications: Western Blotting.
- Pitter, K.L. et al. (2011) PLoS One 6, e14545. Applications: Western Blotting.
- Pribiag, H. and Stellwagen, D. (2013) J Neurosci 33, 15879-15893. Applications: Western Blotting.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
DRAQ5® is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
This antibody is developed, validated, and produced by CST using in part technology under license (granting certain rights including those under U.S. Patents No. 5,675,063 and 7,429,487) from Epitomics, Inc.