Product Pathways - PI3K / Akt Signaling
Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb #4691
|4691L||300 µl (30 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4691S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4691P||40 µl (4 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4691||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey, D. melanogaster||Endogenous||60||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Pig.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of total Akt protein. This antibody does not cross-react with other related proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues in the carboxy-terminal sequence of mouse Akt.
Western blot analysis of recombinant Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3 proteins, and extracts from various cell lines, using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human melanoma using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb in the presence of control peptide (left) or Akt (pan) Blocking Peptide #1085 (right).
Immunohistochemical analysis using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb on SignalSlide (TM) Phospho-Akt (Ser473) IHC Controls #8101 (paraffin-embedded LNCaP cells, untreated (left) or LY294002-treated (right)).
Flow cytometric analysis of Jurkat cells using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb (blue) compared to a nonspecific negative control antibody (red).
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of C2C12 cells, LY294002-treated (left) or insulin-treated (right), using Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments have been labeled with Alexa Fluor® 555 phalloidin (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5™ (fluorescent DNA dye).
Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).
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- Franke, T.F. et al. (1995) Cell 81, 727-36.
- Alessi, D.R. et al. (1996) EMBO J 15, 6541-51.
- Sarbassov, D.D. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1098-101.
- Jacinto, E. et al. (2006) Cell 127, 125-37.
- Cardone, M.H. et al. (1998) Science 282, 1318-21.
- Brunet, A. et al. (1999) Cell 96, 857-68.
- Zimmermann, S. and Moelling, K. (1999) Science 286, 1741-4.
- Cantley, L.C. and Neel, B.G. (1999) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 4240-5.
- Vlahos, C.J. et al. (1994) J Biol Chem 269, 5241-8.
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- Zhou, B.P. et al. (2001) Nat Cell Biol 3, 245-52.
- Navé, B.T. et al. (1999) Biochem J 344 Pt 2, 427-31.
- Inoki, K. et al. (2002) Nat Cell Biol 4, 648-57.
- Manning, B.D. et al. (2002) Mol Cell 10, 151-62.
- Gray, M.J. et al. (2008) J Natl Cancer Inst 100, 109-20. Applications: Western Blotting.
- Allard, D. et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 19739-47. Applications: IHC-P (paraffin).
- Benedettini, E. et al. (2010) Am J Pathol 177, 415-23. Applications: Western Blotting.
- Fonseca, B.D. et al. (2011) J Biol Chem 286, 27111-22. Applications: Western Blotting.
- Peeters, A. et al. (2011) J Biol Chem 286, 42162-79. Applications: Western Blotting.
- Mahajan, K. et al. (2010) PLoS One 5, e9646. Applications: Western Blotting.
- Lan, R. et al. (2012) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol , . Applications: Western Blotting.
- Jothi, M. et al. (2012) Cell Cycle 11, . Applications: Western Blotting.
- Yang, S. et al. (2011) PLoS One 6, e26343. Applications: Western Blotting.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
DRAQ5® is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
This antibody is developed, validated, and produced by CST using in part technology under license (granting certain rights including those under U.S. Patent No. 5,675,063) from Epitomics, Inc.