Product Pathways - NF-kB Signaling
Phospho-IκBβ (Thr19/Ser23) Antibody (Human Specific) #4921
|W||H (Mk) (Dg)||Endogenous||48 to 50||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human Mk=Monkey Dg=Dog
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-IκBβ (Thr19/Ser23) Antibody detects endogenous levels of human IκBβ only when phosphorylated at threonine 19 and serine 23. This antibody also recognizes phosphorylation at Ser19/Ser23 also reported as the sequence for IκBβ.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues of human IκBβ surrounding Thr19/Ser23. Antibodies are purified by protein A and affinity chromatography.
The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).
The regulation of IκBβ and IκBε is similar to that of IκBα. However, the phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation of these proteins occurs with much slower kinetics (9). IKK phosphorylation of IκBβ occurs at Ser19 and Ser23, while IκBε can be phosphorylated at Ser18 and Ser22 (10). The human sequence of IκB-β has also been reported to contain a threonine at position 19 suggesting that phosphorylation could be Thr19/Ser23 (11).
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- Traenckner, E.B. et al. (1995) EMBO J 14, 2876-83.
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- Karin, M. and Ben-Neriah, Y. (2000) Annu Rev Immunol 18, 621-63.
- Hoffmann, A. et al. (2002) Science 298, 1241-1245.
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- Lee, J. W. et al. (1995) Mol. Endocrinol. 9, 243-254.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.