Product Pathways - Protein Stability
SUMO-2/3 (18H8) Rabbit mAb #4971
|4971S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4971P||40 µl (4 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|4971||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Rat||Endogenous||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Mouse.
Specificity / Sensitivity
SUMO-2/3 (18H8) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of SUMO-2/3. It does not cross-react with recombinant SUMO-1.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide from the amino terminus of human SUMO-3.
Western blot analysis of recombinant GST-SUMO-1 protein (38 kDa), recombinant SUMO-2, recombinant SUMO-3, and extracts from C6 and PC12 cells, using SUMO-2/3 (18H8) Rabbit mAb (upper) and SUMO-1 Antibody #4930 (lower).
Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1, 2 and 3 (SUMO-1, -2 and -3) are members of the ubiquitin-like protein family (1). The covalent attachment of the SUMO-1, -2 or -3 (SUMOylation) to target proteins is analogous to ubiquitination. This post-translational modification is a reversible, multi-step process that is initiated by cleaving a precursor protein to a mature protein. Mature SUMO-1, -2 or -3 is then linked to the activating enzyme E1, conjugated to E2 and in conjunction with E3, SUMO-1, -2 or -3 is ligated to the target protein (2). Ubiquitin and the individual SUMO family members are all targeted to different proteins with diverse biological functions. Ubiquitin predominantly regulates degradation of its target (1). In contrast, SUMO-1 is conjugated to RanGAP, PML, p53 and IκB-α to regulate nuclear trafficking, formation of subnuclear structures, regulation of transcriptional activity and protein stability (3-7). SUMO-2/-3 forms poly-(SUMO) chains, is conjugated to topoisomerase II and APP, regulates chromosomal segregation and cellular responses to environmental stress, and plays a role in the progression of Alzheimer disease (8-11).
- Schwartz, D.C. and Hochstrasser, M. (2003) Trends Biochem. Sci. 28, 321-328.
- Kim, K.I. et al. (2002) J. Cell Physiol. 191, 257-268.
- Matunis, M.J. et al. (1996) J. Cell Biol. 135, 1457-1470.
- Duprez, E. et al. (1999) J. Cell Sci. 112, 381-393.
- Gostissa, M. et al. (1999) EMBO J. 18, 6462-6474.
- Rodriguez, M.S. et al. (1999) EMBO J. 18, 6455-6461.
- Desterro, J.M. et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 2, 233-239.
- Tatham, M.H. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 35368-35374.
- Azuma, Y. et al. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 163, 477-487.
- Li, Y. et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 259-264.
- Saitoh, H. and Hinchey, J. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 6252-6258.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
This antibody is developed, validated, and produced by CST using in part technology under license (granting certain rights including those under U.S. Patents No. 5,675,063 and 7,429,487) from Epitomics, Inc.