Product Pathways - Autophagy Signaling
Atg13 Antibody #6940
|W IP||H M R Mk||Endogenous||72||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Atg13 Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total Atg13 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Asp462 of human Atg13 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from RD cells, transfected with 100 nM SignalSilence® Control siRNA (Unconjugated) #6568 (-), or SignalSilence® Atg13 siRNA I #12043 (+), using Atg13 Antibody (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower). The Atg13 Antibody confirms silencing of Atg13 expression, while the β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb is used as a loading control.
Western blot analysis of extracts from COS-7 cells, mock transfected (-) or transfected with a construct expressing Myc/DDK-tagged full-length human Atg13 (hAtg13-Myc/DDK; +), using Atg13 Antibody.
Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation, but has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegeneration, infection, and cancer (3). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and referred to as autophagy-related (Atg) genes.Atg13/Apg13 was originally identified in yeast as a constitutively expressed protein that was genetically linked to Atg1/Apg1, a protein kinase required for autophagy (4). Over-expression of Atg1 suppresses the defects in autophagy observed in Atg13 mutants (4). Autophagy requires a direct association between Atg1 and Atg13, and is inhibited by TOR-dependent phosphorylation of Atg13 under high nutrient conditions (5). Similarly, mammalian Atg13 forms a complex with the Atg1 homologues ULK1/2, along with FIP200, localizes to autophagic isolation membranes, and regulates autophagosome biogenesis (6-8). mTOR phosphorylates both Atg13 and ULK1, suppressing ULK1 kinase activity and autophagy (7-9). ULK1 can directly phosphorylate Atg13 at a yet unidentified site, presumably to promote autophagy (7,8). Additional studies suggest that Atg13 and FIP200 can function independently of ULK1 and ULK2 to induce autophagy through an unknown mechanism (10).
- Reggiori, F. and Klionsky, D.J. (2002) Eukaryot Cell 1, 11-21.
- Codogno, P. and Meijer, A.J. (2005) Cell Death Differ 12 Suppl 2, 1509-18.
- Levine, B. and Yuan, J. (2005) J Clin Invest 115, 2679-88.
- Funakoshi, T. et al. (1997) Gene 192, 207-13.
- Kamada, Y. et al. (2000) J Cell Biol 150, 1507-13.
- Ganley, I.G. et al. (2009) J Biol Chem 284, 12297-305.
- Hosokawa, N. et al. (2009) Mol Biol Cell 20, 1981-91.
- Jung, C.H. et al. (2009) Mol Biol Cell 20, 1992-2003.
- Kim, J. et al. (2011) Nat Cell Biol 13, 132-41.
- Alers, S. et al. (2011) Autophagy 7, 1423-33.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.