Product Pathways - Cell Cycle / Checkpoint
Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb #9045
|W IHC-P IF-IC F||H M R Mk||Endogenous||30||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of total thymidylate synthase protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the carboxy terminus of human thymidylate synthase protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from SK-BR-3 and HCC827 cells, untreated or treated with 5-FU (1 μM) or lapatinib (1 μM) for 24 hr, using Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb (upper) or β-Actin (13E5) Rabbit mAb #4970 (lower).
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb (lower) #8457.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb in the presence of control peptide (left) or antigen-specific peptide (right).
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lymphoma using Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded mouse spleen using Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded SK-BR-3 cell pellets, untreated (left) or treated with LY294002 #9901 (right), using Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Flow cytometric analysis of HCC827 cells (blue) and HeLa cells (green) using Thymidylate Synthase (D5B3) XP® Rabbit mAb.
The methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) is an essential step in the formation of thymine nucleotides (1,2, reviewed in 3). This process is catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TS or TYMS), a homodimer composed of two 30 kDa subunits. TS is an intracellular enzyme that provides the sole de novo source of thymidylate, making it a required enzyme in DNA biosynthesis with activity highest in proliferating cells (1). Being the exclusive source of dTMP, investigators have concluded that TS is also an important target for anticancer agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (1-5). 5-FU acts as a TS inhibitor and is active against solid tumors such as colon, breast, head, and neck. Research studies have demonstrated that patients with metastases expressing lower levels of TS have a higher response rate to treatment with 5-FU than patients with tumors that have increased levels of TS (5). Researchers continue to investigate TS expression in different types of cancers (6-10).
Levels of thymidylate synthase can be modultated in vitro by treatment with various drugs, such as 5-FU and lapatinib. 5-FU treatment induces the formation of two distinct bands, one at 35 kDa and another at 38 kDa, while lapatinib treatment results in a decrease in thymidylate synthase expression (11,12).
- Johnston, P.G. et al. (1991) Cancer Res 51, 6668-76.
- Aschele, C. et al. (2002) Ann Oncol 13, 1882-92.
- Jackman, A.L. and Calvert, A.H. (1995) Ann Oncol 6, 871-81.
- Van Triest, B. et al. (2000) J Histochem Cytochem 48, 755-60.
- Johnston, P.G. et al. (1994) J Clin Oncol 12, 2640-7.
- Kwon, H.C. et al. (2007) Ann Oncol 18, 504-9.
- Allegra, C.J. et al. (2002) J Clin Oncol 20, 1735-43.
- Allegra, C.J. et al. (2003) J Clin Oncol 21, 241-50.
- Tsourouflis, G. et al. (2008) Dig Dis Sci 53, 1289-96.
- Kim, S.H. et al. (2009) Am J Clin Oncol 32, 38-43.
- Chu, E. et al. (1993) Mol Pharmacol 43, 527-33.
- Kim, H.P. et al. (2009) PLoS One 4, e5933.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.