Product Pathways - MAPK Signaling
Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr71) Antibody #9221
|W IP IHC-P IHC-F IF-IC F||H M R Mk||Endogenous||70||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr71) Antibody detects endogenous levels of ATF-2 only when phosphorylated at threonine 71. This antibody does not cross-react with phosphorylated c-Jun, CREB or other transcription factors. It recognizes both Thr69/Thr71 dually phosphorylated ATF-2 and Thr71 singly phosphorylated ATF-2 equally well.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr71 of human ATF2. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa, C6 and NIH/3T3 cells, untreated or anisomycin-treated, using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr71) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma showing nuclear localization, using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr71) Antibody .
Immunohistchemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human colon carcinoma using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr71) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr71) Antibody.
Immunhistochemical analysis of frozen H1650 xenograft using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr71) Antibody.
Flow cytometric analysis of Jurkat cells, untreated (blue) or Anisomycin-treated (green), using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr71) Antibody compared to a nonspecific negative control antibody (red).
The transcription factor ATF-2 (also called CRE-BP1) binds to both AP-1 and CRE DNA response elements and is a member of the ATF/CREB family of leucine zipper proteins (1). ATF-2 interacts with a variety of viral oncoproteins and cellular tumor suppressors and is a target of the SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways (2-4). Various forms of cellular stress, including genotoxic agents, inflammatory cytokines, and UV irradiation, stimulate the transcriptional activity of ATF-2. Cellular stress activates ATF-2 by phosphorylation of Thr69 and Thr71 (2-4). Both SAPK and p38 MAPK have been shown to phosphorylate ATF-2 at these sites in vitro and in cells transfected with ATF-2. Mutations of these sites result in the loss of stress-induced transcription by ATF-2 (2-4). In addition, mutations at these sites reduce the ability of E1A and Rb to stimulate gene expression via ATF-2 (2).
- Abdel-Hafiz, H.A. et al. (1992) Mol. Endocrinol. 6, 2079-2089.
- Gupta, S. et al. (1995) Science 267, 389-393.
- van Dam, H. et al. (1995) EMBO J. 14, 1798-1811.
- Livingstone, C. et al. (1995) EMBO J. 14, 1785-1797.
- deRuiter, N. D. et al. (2000) Ras-dependent regulation of c-Jun phosphorylation is mediated by the Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor-Ral pathway. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 8480-8488. Applications: Western Blotting
- Hocevar, B. A. et al. (1999) TGF-beta induces fibronectin synthesis through a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent, Smad4-independent pathway. EMBO J. 18, 1345-1356. Applications: Western Blotting
- Marinissen, M. J. et al. (2001) Regulation of gene expression by the small GTPase Rho through the ERK6 (p38 gamma) MAP kinase pathway. Genes Dev. 15, 535-553. Applications: Western Blotting
- Ouwens, D. M. et al. (2002) Growth factors can activate ATF2 via a two-step mechanism: phosphorylation of Thr71 through the Ras-MEK-ERK pathway and of Thr69 through RalGDS-Src-p38. EMBO J. 21, 3782-3793. Applications: Western Blotting
- Suh, Y. et al. (2000) Differential activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases by methyl methanesulfonatein the liver and brain of rats: implication for organ-specific carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 60, 5067-5073. Applications: Western Blotting
- Zhang, S. and Kaplan, M.H. (2000) The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for IL-12-induced IFN-gamma expression. J. Immunol. 165, 1374-1380. Applications: Western Blotting
- Hou, N. et al. (2008) Endocrinology 149, 1654-65. Applications: Western Blotting
- Ogino, T. et al. (2009) Leuk Res 33, 151-8. Applications: Western Blotting
Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
- 9223 ATF-2 Control Cell Extracts
- 9225 Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr69/71) Antibody
- 9226 ATF-2 (20F1) Rabbit mAb
- 9224 ATF-2 Fusion Protein
- 7003 20X LumiGLO® Reagent and 20X Peroxide
- 7720 Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (Premixed Format)
- 7727 Biotinylated Protein Ladder Detection Pack
- 7074 Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody
- 7075 Anti-biotin, HRP-linked Antibody
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.