Product Pathways - MAPK Signaling
Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr69/71) Antibody #9225
|W IHC-P||H M R Mk||Endogenous||70||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr69/71) Antibody detects endogenous levels of ATF-2 only when dually phosphorylated at both threonine 69 and threonine 71. It does not recognize ATF-2 singly phosphorylated at either threonine 69 or threonine 71.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr69 and Thr71 of human ATF-2. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from 293 cells, untreated or UV-treated (lanes 1 and 2), NIH/3T3 cells, untreated or anisomycin-treated (lanes 3 and 4), and C6 cells, untreated or anisomycin-treated (lanes 5 and 6), using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr69/71) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human colon carcioma using Phospho-ATF2 (Thr69/71) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma, showing nuclear localization, using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr69/71) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded NIH/3T3 cells, untreated (left) or anisomycin treated (right), using Phospho-ATF-2 (Thr69/71) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcioma, control (left) or lambda phosphatase-treated (right), using Phopsho-ATF2 (Thr69/71) Antibody.
The transcription factor ATF-2 (also called CRE-BP1) binds to both AP-1 and CRE DNA response elements and is a member of the ATF/CREB family of leucine zipper proteins (1). ATF-2 interacts with a variety of viral oncoproteins and cellular tumor suppressors and is a target of the SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways (2-4). Various forms of cellular stress, including genotoxic agents, inflammatory cytokines, and UV irradiation, stimulate the transcriptional activity of ATF-2. Cellular stress activates ATF-2 by phosphorylation of Thr69 and Thr71 (2-4). Both SAPK and p38 MAPK have been shown to phosphorylate ATF-2 at these sites in vitro and in cells transfected with ATF-2. Mutations of these sites result in the loss of stress-induced transcription by ATF-2 (2-4). In addition, mutations at these sites reduce the ability of E1A and Rb to stimulate gene expression via ATF-2 (2).
- Abdel-Hafiz, H.A. et al. (1992) Mol. Endocrinol. 6, 2079-2089.
- Gupta, S. et al. (1995) Science 267, 389-393.
- van Dam, H. et al. (1995) EMBO J. 14, 1798-1811.
- Livingstone, C. et al. (1995) EMBO J. 14, 1785-1797.
- Alsayed, Y. et al. (2000) Activation of Rac1 and the p38 Map kinase pathway in response to all-trans-retinoic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 4012-4019. Applications: Western Blotting
- Goh, K. C. et al. (1999) p38 MAP kinase is required for STAT1 serine phosphorylation and transcriptional activation induced byinterferons. EMBO J. 18, 5601-5608. Applications: Western Blotting
- Hartmann, G. and Krieg, A.M. (2000) Mechanism and function of a newly identified CpG DNA motif in human primary B cells. J. Immunol. 164, 944-953. Applications: Western Blotting
- Ouwens, D. M. et al. (2002) Growth Factors can activate ATF2 via a two-step mechanism: phosphorylation of Thr71 through the Ras-MEK-ERK pathway and of Thr69 through RalGDS-Src-p38. EMBO Journal 21, 3782-3793. Applications: Western Blotting
- Sellers, L. A. et al. (2000) Receptor isoforms mediate opposing proliferative effects through gbetagamma-activated p38 or Akt pathways. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 5974-5985. Applications: Western Blotting
- Zhong, S. P. et al. (2000) ERKs and p38 kinases mediate ultraviolet B-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 20980-20984. Applications: Western Blotting
Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.