Product Pathways - PI3K / Akt Signaling
Phospho-GSK-3α/β (Ser21/9) Antibody #9331
|W IHC-P||H M R Mk Z||Endogenous||46 GSK-3beta. 51 GSK-3alpha.||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey Z=Zebrafish
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-GSK-3alpha/beta (Ser21/9) Antibody detects endogenous levels of GSK-3 only when phosphorylated at serine 21 of GSK-3alpha or serine 9 of GSK-3beta.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to the sequence of human GSK-3 alpha. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from 293 cells, untreated or insulin treated for the indicated times, using Phospho-GSK-3alpha/beta (Ser21/9) Antibody (upper) or GSK-3beta Antibody #9332 (lower).
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma, showing nuclear and cytoplasmic localization, using Phospho-GSK-3alpha/beta (Ser21/9) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma, untreated (left) or lambda phosphatase-treated (right), using Phospho-GSK-3alpha/beta (Ser21/9) Antibody.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma, using Phospho-GSK-3alpha/beta (Ser21/9) Antibody in the presence of control peptide (left) or antigen-specific peptide (right).
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).
- Welsh, G.I. et al. (1996) Trends Cell. Biol. 6, 274-279.
- Srivastava, A.K. and Pandey, S.K. (1998) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 182, 135-141.
- Cross, D.A. et al. (1995) Nature 378, 785-789.
- Nusse, R. (1997) Cell 89, 321-323.
- Diehl, J.A. et al. (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 3499-3511.
- Armstrong, J. L. et al. (2001) Regulation of glycogen synthesis by amino acids in cultured human muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 952-956. Applications: Western Blotting
- Fasshauer, M. et al. (2000) Essential role of insulin receptor substrate-2 in insulin stimulation of Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake in brown adipocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 25494-25501. Applications: Western Blotting
- Zheng, W. H. et al. (2000) Insulin-like growth factor-1-induced phosphorylation of the Forkhead family transcription factor FKHRL1 Is mediated by Akt kinase in PC12 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39152-39158. Applications: Western Blotting
- Peyssonnaux, C. et al. (2000) Induction of postmitotic neuroretina cell proliferation by distinct Ras downstream signaling pathways. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 7068-7079. Applications: Western Blotting
- Allard, D. et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 19739-47. Applications: Western Blotting
- Popkie, A.P. et al. (2010) J Biol Chem 285, 41337-47. Applications: Western Blotting
- Fonseca, B.D. et al. (2011) J Biol Chem 286, 27111-22. Applications: Western Blotting
- Thomson, D.M. et al. (2010) J Appl Physiol 108, 1775-85. Applications: Western Blotting
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- 9315 GSK-3β (27C10) Rabbit mAb
- 9316 Phospho-GSK-3α (Ser21) (36E9) Rabbit mAb
- 9327 Phospho-GSK-3α/β (Ser21/9) (37F11) Rabbit mAb (GSK-3α Preferred)
- 9323 Phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) (5B3) Rabbit mAb
- 9337 Phospho-GSK-3α (Ser21) (46H12) Mouse mAb
- 9840 Akt Kinase Assay Kit (Nonradioactive)
- 7003 20X LumiGLO® Reagent and 20X Peroxide
- 7074 Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody
- 7720 Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (Premixed Format)
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.