Product Pathways - PI3K / Akt Signaling
Phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) Antibody #9336
|W||H M R Mk (Z) (B)||Endogenous||46||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey Z=Zebrafish B=Bovine
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-GSK-3beta (Ser9) Antibody detects endogenous levels of GSK-3β only when phosphorylated at serine 9. The antibody may cross-react weakly with the phosphorylated form of GSK-3α due to high sequence homology.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to the sequence of human GSK-3β. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).
- Welsh, G.I. et al. (1996) Trends Cell. Biol. 6, 274-279.
- Srivastava, A.K. and Pandey, S.K. (1998) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 182, 135-141.
- Cross, D.A. et al. (1995) Nature 378, 785-789.
- Nusse, R. (1997) Cell 89, 321-323.
- Diehl, J.A. et al. (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 3499-3511.
- Crowder, R.J. and Freeman, R.S. (2000) Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta activity is critical for neuronal death caused by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Akt but not for death caused by nerve growth factor withdrawal. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 34266-34271. Applications: Western Blotting
- Fasshauer, M. et al. (2000) Essential role of insulin receptor substrate-2 in insulin stimulation of Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake in brown adipocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 25494-25501. Applications: Western Blotting
- Ohteki, T. et al. (2000) Negative regulation of T cell proliferation and C278 interleukin 2 production by the serine threonine kinase GSK-3. J. Exp. Med. 192, 991-104. Applications: Western Blotting
- Okano, J. et al. (2000) Akt/protein kinase B isoforms are differentially regulated by epidermal growth factor stimulation. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 30934-30942. Applications: Western Blotting
- Nakamura, N. et al. (2000) Forkhead transcription factors are critical effectors of cell death and cell cycle arrest downstream of PTEN. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 8969-8982. Applications: Western Blotting
- Morfini, G. et al. (2002) Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility. EMBO 21 (3), 281-293. Applications: IC-IF
- Vitari, A.C. et al. (2004) Biochem J 378, 257-68. Applications: Western Blotting
- Hirai, S. et al. (2006) J Neurosci 26, 11992-2002. Applications: Western Blotting
- Fujita, H. et al. (2005) Biochem Pharmacol 69, 1773-84. Applications: Western Blotting
- Guertin, D.A. et al. (2009) Cancer Cell 15, 148-59. Applications: Western Blotting
- Kubota, H. et al. (2012) Mol Cell 46, 820-32. Applications: Western Blotting
- Jinesh, G.G. et al. (2012) Cell Death Differ , . Applications: Western Blotting
- Green, H.F. and Nolan, Y.M. (2012) Transl Psychiatry 2, e194. Applications: Western Blotting
- Green, H.F. and Nolan, Y.M. (2012) Neurochem Int 61, 666-71. Applications: Western Blotting
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.