Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Smad3 Antibody #9513
|9513S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|9513||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat||Endogenous||52||Rabbit|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)
Specificity / Sensitivity
Smad3 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Smad3 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to a central region unique to Smad3. Antibodies were purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HT1080, HeLa and B35 cell lines, using Smad3 Antibody.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells transfected with Smad3, using Smad3 Antibody.
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HT1080 cells, serum-starved (left), or treated with hTGF-β3 #8425 (100 ng/ml, 30 min; right), using Smad3 Antibody (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red).
Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).
Following stimulation by TGF-β, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated at their carboxyl termini (Ser465 and 467 on Smad2; Ser423 and 425 on Smad3) by TGF-β Receptor I. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 can complex with Smad4, translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene expression (9-11).
- Heldin, C.H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465-471.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10, 188-194.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 753-791.
- Whitman, M. (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 2445-2462.
- Wu, G. et al. (2000) Science 287, 92-97.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (2002) Science 296, 1646-1647.
- Moustakas, A. et al. (2001) J. Cell Sci. 114, 4359-4369.
- Abdollah, S. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27678-27685.
- Souchelnytskyi, S. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 28107-28115.
- Liu, X. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 94, 10669-10674.
- Van Themsche, C. et al. (2010) Mol Cancer 9, 216. Applications: Western Blotting.
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