Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Smad4 Antibody #9515
|W ChIP||H M R Mk||Endogenous||70||Rabbit|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
Smad4 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Smad4 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the residues surrounding Pro278 of human Smad4. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from COS, NIH3T3, PC12, and SK-N-MC cells, using Smad4 Antibody.
Chromatin immunoprecipitations were performed with cross-linked chromatin from 4 x 106 HaCaT cells treated with Human TGF-β3 #3706 (7ng/ml) for 1 h and either 20 μl of Smad4 Antibody or 2 μl of Normal Rabbit IgG #2729 using SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kit (Magnetic Beads) #9003. The enriched DNA was quantified by real-time PCR using SimpleChIP® Human CDKN1A Intron 1 Primers #4669, SimpleChIP® Human ID1 Promoter Primers #5139, and SimpleChIP® Human α Satellite Repeat Primers #4486. The amount of immunoprecipitated DNA in each sample is represented as signal relative to the total amount of input chromatin, which is equivalent to one.
Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmits TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the recepter-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Briefly, activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved SSXS motif at the carboxy-terminus of the proteins. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad, Smad4, and together the complex moves to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).
- Heldin, C. H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465-471.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10, 188-194.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 753-791.
- Whitman, . (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 2445-2462.
- Wrana, J. (2000) Science 23, 1-9.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J. (2002) Science 296, 1646-1647.
- Moustakas, A. et al. (2001) J. Cell Sci. 114, 4359-4369.
- Van Themsche, C. et al. (2010) Mol Cancer 9, 216. Applications: Western Blotting
- Wang, J. et al. (2013) J Biol Chem 288, 10418-26. Applications: ChIP
Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
- 9511 Phospho-Smad1 (Ser463/465)/ Smad5 (Ser463/465)/ Smad8 (Ser426/428) Antibody
- 9516 Phospho-Smad1/5 (Ser463/465) (41D10) Rabbit mAb
- 3101 Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) Antibody
- 9520 Phospho-Smad3 (Ser423/425) (C25A9) Rabbit mAb
- 9743 Smad1 Antibody
- 9517 Smad5 Antibody
- 3122 Smad2 (86F7) Rabbit mAb
- 3102 Smad2/3 Antibody
- 7071 Phototope®-HRP Western Blot Detection System, Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody
- 7074 Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody
- 7720 Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (Premixed Format)
- 7727 Biotinylated Protein Ladder Detection Pack
- 7003 20X LumiGLO® Reagent and 20X Peroxide
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.