Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Lefty1 Antibody #9620
|9620S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|9620||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting
Specificity / Sensitivity
Lefty1 Antibody recognizes transfected levels of total lefty1 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Pro233 of human lefty1 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Lefty proteins are members of the TGF-β family of cell signaling molecules that are involved in growth and development (1,2). Named for their role in left-right axis determination and their exclusive expression on the left side of the developing mouse embryo, lefty1 and lefty2 contain a cysteine-knot motif that is characteristic of TGF-β related proteins, but lack an alpha-helix and a cysteine residue critical for ligand dimerization (3). Early in vertebrate embryogenesis, lefty represses TGF-β signaling by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Smad2 following activation of the TGF-β receptor (4). Down-regulated very early upon differentiation (5), lefty proteins act as extracellular antagonists of the signaling pathway for Nodal, a TGF-β ligand critical for left-right patterning and formation of the mesoderm and endoderm (6). Similar to other members of the TGF-β superfamily, lefty proproteins undergo cleavage to release a bioactive protein (7). The biologically active 42 kDa lefty precursor and the 28 kDa polypeptide have been shown to induce MAPK activity (7).
- Kingsley, D.M. (1994) Genes Dev 8, 133-46.
- Heldin, C.H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465-71.
- Meno, C. et al. (1997) Genes Cells 2, 513-24.
- Ulloa, L. and Tabibzadeh, S. (2001) J Biol Chem 276, 21397-404.
- Besser, D. (2004) J Biol Chem 279, 45076-84.
- Schier, A.F. (2003) Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 19, 589-621.
- Ulloa, L. et al. (2001) J Biol Chem 276, 21387-96.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
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