Product Pathways - Cytoskeletal Signaling
Brefeldin A #9972
- Molecular Formula:
- Molecular Weight:
- 280.4 g/mol
Directions for Use
Brefeldin A is supplied as a 5 mg powder. Store at -20ºC. Brefeldin A is soluble in DMSO (also ethanol and methanol) and stock solutions (typically 10 mg/ml) should be stored at -20ºC. Working concentrations and length of treatment can vary depending on desired effect. Inhibiton of ER to Golgi trafficking was observed as low as 100 ng/ml and apoptosis was observed with prolonged treatment at 10 μg/ml.
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of MCF-7 cells, untreated (left) or treated with Brefeldin A for 1.5 hours at 100 ng/ml (middle) or 20 μg/ml (right), using a Golgin-97 antibody (green). Actin filaments have been labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5™ (fluorescent DNA dye).
Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite demonstrated to reversibly interfere with anterograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (1,2). While initially isolated as an antibiotic (3), and does have a wide range of antibiotic activity, it is primarily used as a biological research tool for studying protein transport. Treatment leads to a rapid accumulation of proteins within the ER and collapse of the Golgi stacks. Treatment with BFA can also inhibit protein secretion (4) and prolonged exposure can induce apoptosis (5). The main target of BFA appears to be ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), which is responsible for association of coat protein to the Golgi membrane (6,7).
- Klausner, R.D. et al. (1992) J Cell Biol 116, 1071-80.
- Pelham, H.R. (1991) Cell 67, 449-51.
- Tamura, G. et al. (1968) J Antibiot (Tokyo) 21, 160-1.
- Misumi, Y. et al. (1986) J Biol Chem 261, 11398-403.
- Shao, R.G. et al. (1996) Exp Cell Res 227, 190-6.
- Helms, J.B. and Rothman, J.E. (1992) Nature 360, 352-4.
- Randazzo, P.A. et al. (1993) J Biol Chem 268, 9555-63.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.