Product Pathways - Translational Control
LysRS (D16D1) Rabbit mAb #9990
|W IP IF-IC||H M R Mk||Endogenous||75||Rabbit IgG|
Reactivity Key: H=Human M=Mouse R=Rat Mk=Monkey
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot. Species enclosed in parentheses are predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology.
Specificity / Sensitivity
LysRS (D16D1) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total LysRS protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the carboxy terminus of human LysRS protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using LysRS (D16D1) Rabbit mAb.
Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is a multifunctional protein that has both regular and mitochondrial forms. The regular form of LysRS belongs to a family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) that catalyze amino acid attachment to its cognate tRNA. In mammalian systems, LysRS forms a multisystem complex (MSC) with several other aaRSs (1-3). In addition to its conventional function, LysRS regulates diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) production (3). Cellular and metabolic stress increases the level of Ap4A, which functions as a cellular alarm system (3-5). Following FcεRI aggregation in mast cells, MAPK/Erk kinase (MEK) phosphorylates LysRS at Ser207 (5). Serine phosphorylation of LysRS leads to the release of LysRS from MSC and its translocation into the nucleus (5), as well as increased synthesis of Ap4A (5,6). LysRS binds to microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and MITF repressor Hint-1. Upon binding of Ap4A, Hint-1 is released from the complex that in turn allows the transcription of MITF-responsive genes (5-7). LysRS is also involved in HIV viral assembly through incorporation into HIV-1 virions via an interaction with HIV-1 Gag (8). Research studies have shown that in the presence of mutant Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), mitochondrial LysRS tends to be misfolded and degraded by proteasomal degradation, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) (9). LysRS is also secreted and has cytokine-like functions (10). LysRS was also found to be an autoantigen in autoimmune responses (11).
- Szymański, M. et al. (2000) Acta Biochim Pol 47, 821-34.
- Bandyopadhyay, A.K. and Deutscher, M.P. (1971) J Mol Biol 60, 113-22.
- Wahab, S.Z. and Yang, D.C. (1985) J Biol Chem 260, 5286-9.
- Yannay-Cohen, N. et al. (2009) Mol Cell 34, 603-11.
- Lee, Y.N. and Razin, E. (2005) Mol Cell Biol 25, 8904-12.
- Lee, Y.N. et al. (2004) Immunity 20, 145-51.
- Nechushtan, H. and Razin, E. (2002) Mol Immunol 38, 1177-80.
- Kovaleski, B.J. et al. (2006) J Biol Chem 281, 19449-56.
- Kawamata, H. et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 28321-8.
- Park, S.G. et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102, 6356-61.
- Linke, A.T. et al. (2001) Clin Exp Immunol 126, 173-9.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.