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REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) Isotype
H M R Mk Mi Sc Endogenous Rabbit IgG
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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of C2C12 cells, treated with either insulin (left) or LY294002, U0126 and Rapamycin (right), using Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate) (red) and β-Catenin (L54E2) Mouse mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) (green). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).

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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal goat serum (#5425) / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml: add 0.5 ml normal goat serum and 0.5 ml 20X PBS to 9.0 ml dH2O, mix. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer: (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (#9998), mix.
  5. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multi-well plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde diluted in 1X PBS.

    NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in a fume hood.

  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 min at room temperature.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 min.
  2. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on datasheet in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  3. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  4. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  5. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  6. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071) or Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  7. For best results, allow mountant to cure overnight at room temperature. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised November 2013

protocol id: 182

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Immunofluorescence 1:50

Storage: Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.

Specificity / Sensitivity

Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate) detects endogenous levels of ribosomal protein S6 only when phosphorylated at Ser235 and 236.


Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey, Mink, S. cerevisiae
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Chicken, Pig

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser235 and Ser236 of human ribosomal protein S6. The antibody was conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 under optimal conditions with an F/P ratio of 2-6.

Product Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for immunofluorescence of human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb #4858.


One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).


1.  Dufner, A. and Thomas, G. (1999) Exp Cell Res 253, 100-9.

2.  Peterson, R.T. and Schreiber, S.L. (1998) Curr Biol 8, R248-50.

3.  Jefferies, H.B. et al. (1997) EMBO J 16, 3693-704.

4.  Ferrari, S. et al. (1991) J Biol Chem 266, 22770-5.

5.  Flotow, H. and Thomas, G. (1992) J Biol Chem 267, 3074-8.


Entrez-Gene Id 6194
Swiss-Prot Acc. P62753


For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
DRAQ5® is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
The Alexa Fluor® dye antibody conjugates in this product are sold under license from Life Technologies Corporation for research use only, except for use in combination with DNA microarrays. The Alexa Fluor® dyes (except for Alexa Fluor® 430 dye) are covered by pending and issued patents. Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.