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REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) Isotype
H M R Mk Endogenous Rabbit IgG
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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Immunofluorescent analysis of SNB19 (left) and MCF7 (right) cells using Vimentin (D21H3) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 594 Conjugate) (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).

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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Permeabilization Buffer (1X PBS/0.2% Triton X-100):
    To prepare 25 ml, add 2.5 ml 10X PBS, and 22.5 ml dH2O and mix well. While stirring, add 50 µl Triton X-100.
  4. Image-iT™ FX Signal Enhancer (#11932)
  5. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to 9.0 mL dH2O, mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  6. Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
  7. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed, and stained directly in multi-well plates, chamber slides, or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde in 1X PBS.
    NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.
  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Permeabilize the cells in Permeabilization Buffer for 5 minutes at room temperature.
  2. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  3. Apply 3–4 drops of Image-iT™ FX Signal Enhancer (#11932) and incubate for 30 minutes at room temperature.
  4. Rinse three times with 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  5. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 minutes.
  6. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on datasheet in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  7. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  8. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  9. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  10. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  11. For best results, examine specimens immediately using appropriate excitation wavelength. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted Februay 2011

protocol id: 6

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Immunofluorescence 1:50

Storage: Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.

Specificity / Sensitivity

Vimentin (D21H3) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 594 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total vimentin protein.


Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Arg45 of human vimentin protein.

Product Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Vimentin (D21H3) XP® Rabbit mAb #5741.


The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microfilaments (actin filaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Major types of intermediate filaments are distinguished by their cell-specific expression: cytokeratins (epithelial cells), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (glial cells), desmin (skeletal, visceral, and certain vascular smooth muscle cells), vimentin (mesenchyme origin), and neurofilaments (neurons). GFAP and vimentin form intermediate filaments in astroglial cells and modulate their motility and shape (1). In particular, vimentin filaments are present at early developmental stages, while GFAP filaments are characteristic of differentiated and mature brain astrocytes. Thus, GFAP is commonly used as a marker for intracranial and intraspinal tumors arising from astrocytes (2). Research studies have shown that vimentin is present in sarcomas, but not carcinomas, and its expression is examined in conjunction with that of other markers to distinguish between the two (3). Vimentin's dynamic structural changes and spatial re-organization in response to extracellular stimuli help to coordinate various signaling pathways (4). Phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser56 in smooth muscle cells regulates the structural arrangement of vimentin filaments in response to serotonin (5,6). Remodeling of vimentin and other intermediate filaments is important during lymphocyte adhesion and migration through the endothelium (7).

During mitosis, CDK1 phosphorylates vimentin at Ser56. This phosphorylation provides a PLK binding site for vimentin-PLK interaction. PLK further phosphorylates vimentin at Ser82, which might serve as memory phosphorylation site and play a regulatory role in vimentin filament disassembly (8,9). Additionally, studies using various soft-tissue sarcoma cells have shown that phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser39 by Akt1 enhances cell migration and survival, suggesting that vimentin could be a potential target for soft-tissue sarcoma targeted therapy (10,11).


1.  Eng, L.F. et al. (2000) Neurochem Res 25, 1439-51.

2.  Goebel, H.H. et al. (1987) Acta Histochem Suppl 34, 81-93.

3.  Leader, M. et al. (1987) Histopathology 11, 63-72.

4.  Helfand, B.T. et al. (2004) J Cell Sci 117, 133-41.

5.  Tang, D.D. et al. (2005) Biochem J 388, 773-83.

6.  Fomina, I.G. et al. (1990) Klin Med (Mosk) 68, 125-7.

7.  Nieminen, M. et al. (2006) Nat Cell Biol 8, 156-62.

8.  Yamaguchi, T. et al. (2005) J Cell Biol 171, 431-6.

9.  Oguri, T. et al. (2006) Genes Cells 11, 531-40.

10.  Zhu, Q.S. et al. (2011) Oncogene 30, 457-70.

11.  Xue, G. and Hemmings, B.A. (2013) J Natl Cancer Inst 105, 393-404.


Entrez-Gene Id 7431
Swiss-Prot Acc. P08670


For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
DRAQ5® is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
The Alexa Fluor® dye antibody conjugates in this product are sold under license from Life Technologies Corporation for research use only, except for use in combination with DNA microarrays. The Alexa Fluor® dyes (except for Alexa Fluor® 430 dye) are covered by pending and issued patents. Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.