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Product Description

Each control slide contains formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded cell pellets, HDLM-2 (PD-L1 positive) and PC-3 (PD-L1 negative), that serve as controls for PD-L1 immunostaining.


Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) is a member of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. The PD-L1 ligand binds the PD-1 transmembrane receptor and inhibits T cell activation. PD-L1 was discovered following a search for novel B7 protein homologs and was later shown to be expressed by antigen presenting cells, activated T cells, and tissues including placenta, heart, and lung (1-3). Similar in structure to related B7 family members, PD-L1 protein contains extracellular IgV and IgC domains and a short, cytoplasmic region. Research studies demonstrate that PD-L1 is expressed in several tumor types, including melanoma, ovary, colon, lung, breast, and renal cell carcinomas (4-6). Expression of PD-L1 in cancer is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, which mediate PD-L1 expression through the release of interferon gamma (7). Additional research links PD-L1 expression to cancers associated with viral infections (8,9).


1.  Dong, H. et al. (1999) Nat Med 5, 1365-9.

2.  Freeman, G.J. et al. (2000) J Exp Med 192, 1027-34.

3.  Liang, S.C. et al. (2003) Eur J Immunol 33, 2706-16.

4.  Dong, H. et al. (2002) Nat Med 8, 793-800.

5.  Thompson, R.H. et al. (2006) Cancer Res 66, 3381-5.

6.  Pardoll, D.M. (2012) Nat Rev Cancer 12, 252-64.

7.  Taube, J.M. et al. (2012) Sci Transl Med 4, 127ra37.

8.  Lyford-Pike, S. et al. (2013) Cancer Res 73, 1733-41.

9.  Chen, B.J. et al. (2013) Clin Cancer Res 19, 3462-73.



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