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Product Includes Quantity Applications Reactivity MW(kDa) Isotype
COX IV (3E11) Rabbit mAb 4850 40 µl
Western Blotting Immunoprecipitation Immunohistochemistry Immunofluorescence Flow Cytometry
H R Mk Z B Pg 17 Rabbit IgG
β-Tubulin (9F3) Rabbit mAb 2128 40 µl
Western Blotting Immunohistochemistry Immunofluorescence Flow Cytometry
H M R Mk Z B 55 Rabbit IgG
Histone H3 (D1H2) XP® Rabbit mAb 4499 40 µl
Western Blotting Immunohistochemistry Immunofluorescence Flow Cytometry
H M R Mk 17 Rabbit IgG
GAPDH (D16H11) XP® Rabbit mAb 5174 40 µl
Western Blotting Immunohistochemistry Immunofluorescence
H M R Mk 37 Rabbit 
β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb 8457 40 µl
Western Blotting Immunofluorescence Flow Cytometry
H M R Mk 45 Rabbit IgG
Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody 7074 100 µl
Western Blotting
All Goat 

Product Description

The Loading Control Antibody Sampler Kit contains antibodies to a variety of housekeeping proteins. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform four western blots per primary antibody.


Specificity / Sensitivity

Each antibody in the Loading Control Antibody Sampler Kit detects endogenous levels of its target protein and does not typically cross-react with other proteins.


Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues near the amino terminus of human β-actin, surrounding Lys29 of human COX IV, the sequence of human GAPDH, the carboxy-terminal residues of human histone H3, and the amino terminus of human β-tubulin.

Housekeeping proteins perform numerous basic functions within the cell and are constitutively expressed at high levels in a variety of tissues and cell types. Western blot analysis commonly uses housekeeping proteins such as β-actin, COX IV, GAPDH, histone H3 and the α- and β-tubulins as loading controls. Actin is a ubiquitous protein and a major component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin exists mainly as the F-actin fibrous polymer (1). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis. Recent work has demonstrated that GAPDH plays roles in apoptosis (2), gene expression (3), and nuclear transport (4). Globular tubulin subunits made up of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers are the building blocks of microtubules, one of three types of cytosolic fibers that comprise the cytoskeleton (5). Histone proteins, including histone H3, make up the primary building block of chromatin known as nucleosomes. Modulation of the chromatin structure plays an important role in the regulation of transcription in eukaryotes (6). Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a hetero-oligomeric enzyme consisting of 13 subunits localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane (7-9). It is the terminal enzyme complex in the respiratory chain, catalyzing the reduction of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane to drive ATP synthesis (10).


1.  Westermann, S. and Weber, K. (2003) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 4, 938 -947.

2.  Workman, J.L. and Kingston, R.E. (1998) Annu Rev Biochem 67, 545-79.

3.  Ostermeier, C. et al. (1996) Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 6, 460-466.

4.  Condeelis, J. (2001) Trends Cell Biol 11, 288-93.

5.  Hara, M.R. and Snyder, S.H. (2006) Cell Mol. Neurobiol. 26, 527-38.

6.  Capaldi, R.A. et al. (1983) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 726, 135-148.

7.  Zheng, L. et al. (2003) Cell 114, 255-66.

8.  Kadenbach, B. et al. (2000) Free Radic. Biol. Med. 29, 211-221.

9.  Bae, B.I. et al. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 3405-9.

10.  Barrientos, A. et al. (2002) Gene 286, 53-63.


Entrez-Gene Id 60, 1327, 2597, 8350, 203068
Swiss-Prot Acc. P60709, P13073, P04406, P68431, P07437


For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
U.S. Patent No. 5,675,063.