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REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) SOURCE
H Endogenous 62 Rabbit

Western blot analysis of extracts from HT-29 cells, asynchronous or synchronized in mitosis using Phospho-PLK1 (Thr210) Antibody. The antibody was pre-incubated with a PLK1 phospho-Thr210 peptide or nonphospho-peptide as indicated. The same lysates were examined using total PLK1 (208G4) Rabbit mAb #4513.

Mitotic synchronization was performed by thymidine block followed by release into nocodazole and mitotic shake-off.

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Western Blotting Protocol

For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v BSA, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.

NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
  2. 10X Tris Buffered Saline (TBS): (#12498) To prepare 1 L 1X TBS: add 100 ml 10X to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  3. 1X SDS Sample Buffer: Blue Loading Pack (#7722) or Red Loading Pack (#7723) Prepare fresh 3X reducing loading buffer by adding 1/10 volume 30X DTT to 1 volume of 3X SDS loading buffer. Dilute to 1X with dH2O.
  4. 10X Tris-Glycine SDS Running Buffer: (#4050) To prepare 1 L 1X running buffer: add 100 ml 10X running buffer to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  5. 10X Tris-Glycine Transfer Buffer: (#12539) To prepare 1 L 1X Transfer Buffer: add 100 ml 10X Transfer Buffer to 200 ml methanol + 700 ml dH2O, mix.
  6. 10X Tris Buffered Saline with Tween® 20 (TBST): (#9997) To prepare 1 L 1X TBST: add 100 ml 10X TBST to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  7. Nonfat Dry Milk: (#9999).
  8. Blocking Buffer: 1X TBST with 5% w/v nonfat dry milk; for 150 ml, add 7.5 g nonfat dry milk to 150 ml 1X TBST and mix well.
  9. Wash Buffer: (#9997) 1X TBST.
  10. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA): (#9998).
  11. Primary Antibody Dilution Buffer: 1X TBST with 5% BSA; for 20 ml, add 1.0 g BSA to 20 ml 1X TBST and mix well.
  12. Biotinylated Protein Ladder Detection Pack: (#7727).
  13. Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (Premixed Format): (#7720).
  14. Blotting Membrane and Paper: (#12369) This protocol has been optimized for nitrocellulose membranes. Pore size 0.2 µm is generally recommended.
  15. Secondary Antibody Conjugated to HRP: Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody (#7074).
  16. Detection Reagent: SignalFire™ ECL Reagent (#6883).

B. Protein Blotting

A general protocol for sample preparation.

  1. Treat cells by adding fresh media containing regulator for desired time.
  2. Aspirate media from cultures; wash cells with 1X PBS; aspirate.
  3. Lyse cells by adding 1X SDS sample buffer (100 µl per well of 6-well plate or 500 µl for a 10 cm diameter plate). Immediately scrape the cells off the plate and transfer the extract to a microcentrifuge tube. Keep on ice.
  4. Sonicate for 10–15 sec to complete cell lysis and shear DNA (to reduce sample viscosity).
  5. Heat a 20 µl sample to 95–100°C for 5 min; cool on ice.
  6. Microcentrifuge for 5 min.
  7. Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).

    NOTE: Loading of prestained molecular weight markers (#7720, 10 µl/lane) to verify electrotransfer and biotinylated protein ladder (#7727, 10 µl/lane) to determine molecular weights are recommended.

  8. Electrotransfer to nitrocellulose membrane (#12369).

C. Membrane Blocking and Antibody Incubations

NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.

I. Membrane Blocking

  1. (Optional) After transfer, wash nitrocellulose membrane with 25 ml TBS for 5 min at room temperature.
  2. Incubate membrane in 25 ml of blocking buffer for 1 hr at room temperature.
  3. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.

II. Primary Antibody Incubation

  1. Incubate membrane and primary antibody (at the appropriate dilution and diluent as recommended in the product datasheet) in 10 ml primary antibody dilution buffer with gentle agitation overnight at 4°C.
  2. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.
  3. Incubate membrane with Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody (#7074 at 1:2000) and anti-biotin, HRP-linked Antibody (#7075 at 1:1000–1:3000) to detect biotinylated protein markers in 10 ml of blocking buffer with gentle agitation for 1 hr at room temperature.
  4. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.
  5. Proceed with detection (Section D).

D. Detection of Proteins

Directions for Use:

  1. Wash membrane-bound HRP (antibody conjugate) three times for 5 minutes in TBST.
  2. Prepare 1X SignalFire™ ECL Reagent (#6883) by diluting one part 2X Reagent A and one part 2X Reagent B (e.g. for 10 ml, add 5 ml Reagent A and 5 ml Reagent B). Mix well.
  3. Incubate substrate with membrane for 1 minute, remove excess solution (membrane remains wet), wrap in plastic and expose to X-ray film.

* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.

posted June 2005

revised November 2013

protocol id: 10

Western Blot Reprobing Protocol

Reprobing of an existing membrane is a convenient means to immunoblot for multiple proteins independently when only a limited amount of sample is available. It should be noted that for the best possible results a fresh blot is always recommended. Reprobing can be a valuable method but with each reprobing of a blot there is potential for increased background signal. Additionally, it is recommended that you verify the removal of the first antibody complex prior to reprobing so that signal attributed to binding of the new antibody is not leftover signal from the first immunoblotting experiment. This can be done by re-exposing the blot to ECL reagents and making sure there is no signal prior to adding the next primary antibody.

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.

  1. Wash Buffer: Tris Buffered Saline with Tween® 20 (TBST-10X) (#9997)
  2. Stripping Buffer: To prepare 100 ml, mix 0.76 g Tris base, 2 g SDS and 700 μl β-mercaptoethanol. Bring to 100 ml with deionized H2O. Adjust pH to 6.8 with HCl.

B. Protocol

  1. After film exposure, wash membrane four times for 5 min each in TBST. Best results are obtained if the membrane is not allowed to dry.
  2. Incubate membrane for 30 min at 50°C in stripping buffer (with slight agitation).
  3. Wash membrane six times for 5 min each in TBST.
  4. (Optional) To assure that the original signal is removed, wash membrane twice for 5 min each with 10 ml of TBST. Incubate membrane with LumiGLO® with gentle agitation for 1 min at room temperature. Drain membrane of excess developing solution. Do not let dry. Wrap in plastic wrap and expose to x-ray film.
  5. Wash membrane again four times for 5 min each in TBST.
  6. The membrane is now ready to reuse. Start detection at the "Membrane Blocking and Antibody Incubations" step in the Western Immunoblotting Protocol.

posted June 2005

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Western Blotting 1:1000

Storage: Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.

Specificity / Sensitivity

Phospho-PLK1 (Thr210) Antibody detects endogenous levels PLK1 only when phosphorylated at threonine 210.


Species Reactivity: Human
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Monkey

Source / Purification

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phospho-peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr210 of human PLK1. Antibodies are purified using protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.

At least four distinct polo-like kinases exist in mammalian cells: PLK1, PLK2, PLK3, and PLK4/SAK (1). PLK1 apparently plays many roles during mitosis, particularly in regulating mitotic entry and exit. The mitosis promoting factor (MPF), cdc2/cyclin B1, is activated by dephosphorylation of cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15) by cdc25C. PLK1 phosphorylates cdc25C at Ser198 and cyclin B1 at Ser133 causing translocation of these proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (2-5). PLK1 phosphorylation of Myt1 at Ser426 and Thr495 has been proposed to inactivate Myt1, one of the kinases known to phosphorylate cdc2 at Thr14/Tyr15 (6). Polo-like kinases also phosphorylate the cohesin subunit SCC1, causing cohesin displacement from chromosome arms that allow for proper cohesin localization to centromeres (7). Mitotic exit requires activation of the anaphase promoting complex (APC) (8), a ubiquitin ligase responsible for removal of cohesin at centromeres, and degradation of securin, cyclin A, cyclin B1, Aurora A, and cdc20 (9). PLK1 phosphorylation of the APC subunits Apc1, cdc16, and cdc27 has been demonstrated in vitro and has been proposed as a mechanism by which mitotic exit is regulated (10,11).

Substitution of Thr210 with Asp has been reported to elevate PLK1 kinase activity and delay/arrest cells in mitosis, while a Ser137Asp substitution leads to S-phase arrest (12). In addition, while DNA damage has been found to inhibit PLK1 kinase activity, the Thr210Asp mutant is resistant to this inhibition (13). PLK1 has been reported to be phosphorylated in vivo at Ser137 and Thr210 in mitosis; DNA damage prevents phosphorylation at these sites (14).


1.  Nigg, E.A. (1998) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10, 776-783.

2.  Toyoshima-Morimoto, F. et al. (2002) EMBO Rep. 3, 341-348.

3.  Toyoshima-Morimoto, F. et al. (2001) Nature 410, 215-220.

4.  Peter, M. et al. (2002) EMBO Rep. 3, 551-556.

5.  Jackman, M. et al. (2003) Nat. Cell Biol. 5, 143-148.

6.  Nakajima, H. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 25277-25280.

7.  Sumara, I. et al. (2002) Mol. Cell 9, 515-525.

8.  Hauf, S. et al. (2001) Science 293, 1320-1323.

9.  Peters, J.M. (1999) Exp. Cell Res. 248, 339-349.

10.  Kraft, C. et al. (2003) EMBO J. 22, 6598-6609.

11.  Kotani, S. et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 1, 371-380.

12.  Jang, Y.J. et al. (2002) J Biol Chem 277, 44115-20.

13.  Smits, V.A. et al. (2000) Nat Cell Biol 2, 672-6.

14.  Tsvetkov, L. and Stern, D.F. (2005) Cell Cycle 4, 166-71.


Entrez-Gene Id 5347
Swiss-Prot Acc. P53350


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